presented by arnold boedihardjo and vivek srivastava december 1 2004 n.
Download
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
Presented by Arnold Boedihardjo and Vivek Srivastava December 1, 2004 PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
Presented by Arnold Boedihardjo and Vivek Srivastava December 1, 2004

Loading in 2 Seconds...

play fullscreen
1 / 39

Presented by Arnold Boedihardjo and Vivek Srivastava December 1, 2004 - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 115 Views
  • Uploaded on

On Integrated Location and Service Management for Minimizing Network Cost in Personal Communication Systems (by I R Chen, Baoshan Gu and S-T Cheng). Presented by Arnold Boedihardjo and Vivek Srivastava December 1, 2004. Agenda. Introduction Motivation

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about 'Presented by Arnold Boedihardjo and Vivek Srivastava December 1, 2004' - babu


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
presented by arnold boedihardjo and vivek srivastava december 1 2004

On Integrated Location and Service Management for Minimizing Network Cost in Personal Communication Systems(by I R Chen, Baoshan Gu and S-T Cheng)

Presented by Arnold Boedihardjo

and

Vivek Srivastava

December 1, 2004

agenda
Agenda
  • Introduction
  • Motivation
  • Integrated service and location management schemes
  • Cost models
  • Performance evaluation
  • Results
  • Conclusions
introduction
Introduction
  • Personal Communication Service (PCS)
    • Wireless voice and/or data communication service
    • Includes technologies such as GSM 1900 and CDMA
    • Digital cellular service at 1900 MHz
  • Example services
    • Banking
    • Stock quotes
    • Travel information
    • Weather
  • Devices and mediums
    • Phones / cellular network
    • Blackberry / cellular network
pcs system a simple view
PCS system: A simple view
  • Client and server model with mobility
  • Clients – Mobile devices

Server

Client

Client

Client

pcs system location management
PCS system: Location management
  • PCS signaling network architecture

Home Location Register

Public Switched Telephone Network

Regional Signaling Transfer Point

Local Signaling Transfer Point

Visitor Location Register

pcs system problem
PCS system: Problem
  • Managing services in roaming environment
  • How does the server find new VLR?
  • Too much overhead in contacting HLR

Server

VLR

VLR

pcs system solution
PCS system: Solution
  • Service Proxy

Server

Proxy

Client

Client

Client

pcs system solution1
PCS System: Solution
  • Service Proxy
    • Context Information
    • Tracks the location of the MU
    • Forwards client requests to servers
    • Forwards server replies to clients
    • Reduces communication costs
      • Eliminates server overhead to check with location management system before data delivery
static service proxy
Static service proxy
  • Proxy at a fixed location
  • Inefficient data route delivery

Server

Proxy

Client

mobile service proxy
Mobile service proxy
  • Proxy moves with client
  • Proxy informs server of location changes

Server

Proxy/

Client

Proxy/

Client

Proxy/

Client

pcs decoupled model
PCS decoupled model
  • Service and location management are decoupled
  • Problem: Extra communication cost incurred for updating service proxy

HLR / VLR

Proxy

Client

integrated location and service management
Integrated location and service management
  • Combine location and service handoffs
  • An implementation proposed by Jain and Krishnakumar [8,10]
    • Requires fully replicated servers
    • Example: Video stream
      • Transfer of service context to new server
      • Service context
        • Time marker, title, current frames, etc
    • Problem: Fully replicated servers is difficult to attain for large deployment
a better integrated solution
A better integrated solution
  • Fully replicated servers is not a prerequisite
  • Address general personalized services
  • Per-user proxy service
  • Proxy service colocated (moves) with location database
  • Centralized, fully distributed, dynamic anchor and static anchor scheme
centralized scheme
Centralized scheme
  • Proxy is centralized and colocated with the HLR to minimize communication costs with HLR to track MU
  • When MU moves to different VLR invokes a location update operation and no server update
  • A call delivery invokes a search operation at the HLR to locate the MU
  • Service route: MU proxy/HLR server
fully distributed scheme
Fully distributed scheme
  • Location and service handoffs occur when MU moves to new VLR
  • Service proxy colocated (moves) with location database at the current VLR
  • Moving to new VLR invokes location update, context transfer and server update
  • Call delivery invokes search operation at the HLR to locate the MU
  • Service route: MU/proxy server
static anchor scheme
Static anchor scheme
  • VLR grouped into logical boundaries called anchor boundaries
  • HLR now contains anchor information
  • Proxy co-located with anchor and is fixed until MU is within the anchor area
  • Intra-anchor movement
    • Location update to anchor of new VLR with no update to the HLR
  • Inter-anchor movement
    • Location update to HLR of new anchor, service context transfer and update server
  • Call delivery invokes a search operation at the HLR to locate the current anchor VLR and subsequently to the MU
  • Service route
    • MU proxy/anchor server
dynamic anchor scheme
Dynamic Anchor Scheme
  • Same as static anchor except that the anchor changes to current VLR within intra-anchor movement through a call delivery
  • Call delivery
    • Search operation to the HLR
    • If local anchor is not current serving VLR
      • Location update, service context transfer, update server
  • Service route: MU proxy/anchor server
  • If there is a service request following a call delivery, current VLR is anchor VLR the service route is MU server which is a benefit over static anchor scheme
cost models
Cost models
  • Performance metric – total communication cost per time unit
  • 3 basic operations
    • Location update ( ) – cost for updating the location of MU and service proxy (sometimes, service context transfer)
    • Call delivery ( ) – cost for locating a MU to deliver a call
    • User service requests ( ) – cost for MU to communicate with server through proxy
dynamic anchor scheme model 1
Dynamic anchor scheme model (1)

Call:

ServCvdC

Cs

CE

ServNonCvdC

Sink Flag

InMs

ServInM

Flag

InA

Movement:

RstFlag1

Ms

ME

OutA

OutMs

ServOutM

RstFlag

RstFlag2

ServCvdS

Service Request:

Ss

SE

ServNonCvdS

Note: Refer to the paper for meaning of symbols

dynamic anchor scheme model 2
Dynamic anchor scheme model (2)
  • Call delivery
    • Call arrives and Cs is filled with a token
    • If mark(Flag) > 0
      • ServNonCvdC is enabled and current VLR is not same as anchor VLR
      • HLR is queried to locate the anchor; anchor queries the current serving VLR and MU’s location is returned
      • Anchor is moved to current VLR
    • If mark(Flag)=0
      • ServCvdC is enabled and current VLR is same as anchor VLR
      • HLR is queried to locate the anchor; anchor returns the MU’s location immediately
dynamic anchor scheme model 3
Dynamic anchor scheme model (3)
  • Location update
    • When MU moves, token is placed in Ms
    • If movement is intra-anchor with probability InA
      • ServInM is enabled and a local anchor update is performed
      • mark(Flag) > 0 indicating current VLR != anchor VLR
    • If movement is inter-anchor with probability OutA
      • ServOutM is enabled and the HLR is updated with current VLR (new anchor)
      • service context is transferred from old anchor to new anchor and,
      • application servers are updated with new address of proxy
      • mark(Flag) = 0 indicating current VLR = anchor VLR
dynamic anchor scheme 4
Dynamic anchor scheme (4)
  • Service request
    • MU sends a service request and token is placed in Ss
    • If mark(Flag) > 0
      • ServNonCvdS is enabled and current VLR is not anchor VLR.
      • Request is sent to service proxy colocated with local anchor to forward to server
      • Service proxy is co-located with anchor, so no extra cost to obtain MU’s current location
    • If mark(Flag) = 0
      • ServCvdS is enabled and current VLR is the anchor VLR
      • Service proxy is co-located with anchor VLR
dynamic anchor scheme model 5
Dynamic anchor scheme model (5)
  • System costs
    • N states in the underlying Markov model
    • :steady state probability that system is in state i
    • :search cost assigned to state i under the dynamic scheme
    • :cost for location update in state i
    • : cost for service request in state i
dynamic anchor scheme model 6
Dynamic anchor scheme model (6)
  • System costs (cont’d)
    • Expected search cost under the dynamic scheme
    • Expected location update cost under the dynamic scheme
    • Expected service request cost under the dynamic scheme
static anchor scheme model 1
Static anchor scheme model (1)

Call:

Cs

CE

ServC

InMs

InA

ServInM

Movement:

Ms

ME

OutA

OutMs

ServOutM

Service Request:

SE

Ss

ServS

static anchor scheme model 2
Static anchor scheme model (2)
  • Anchor is fixed in an anchor area until the MU departs from that area
  • Call delivery
    • Cost from the HLR to the anchor (T) + anchor to the current VLR ( )
  • Location update
    • If movement is intra-anchor with probability InA
      • ServInM is enabled and a local anchor update is performed
    • If movement is inter-anchor with probability OutA
      • ServOutM is enabled and HLR is updated with new anchor information
      • Service context is transferred from old to new anchor
      • Application servers are informed of the new anchor
static anchor scheme model 3
Static anchor scheme model (3)
  • Service request
    • MU sends a service request and a token in placed in Ss
    • ServS is enabled and service request is routed from the MU, to the proxy co-located with the anchor VLR and to the server
  • System costs per unit time
    • Call delivery:
    • Location update:
    • Service request:
performance evaluation parameterization 1
Performance evaluation – Parameterization (1)
  • Assumptions and basics
    • Assume a hexagonal shaped cell
    • n-layer VLR covers cells where n = 2 or n = 3
    • n-level LSTP contains VLRs
    • n-level RSTP contains LSTPs
    • One LSTP corresponds to one anchor area
  • Probability that a MU moves within same anchor area
  • Probability of an inter-anchor movement:
  • Probability that a MU moves within the same RSTP

e.g. n=2, boundary edges = 18, internal edges = 24.

VLR

VLR

VLR

VLR

VLR

VLR

VLR

performance evaluation parameterization 2
Performance evaluation – Parameterization (2)
  • Communication between HLR and VLR moves through VLR-LSTP-RSTP-PSTN path
  • Communication between two neighboring VLRs ( ):
    • Communication cost between two VLRs in same LSTP( )
    • Communication cost between two VLRs in different LSTPs ( )
    • Communication cost between two VLRs out of same RSTP (1- )
  • Dynamic anchor scheme
    • Communication between anchor VLR and another VLR in same LSTP:
performance evaluation parameterization 3
Performance evaluation – Parameterization (3)
  • Dynamic anchor scheme
    • Communication between two neighboring LSTP areas ( )
      • Communication between VLRs in same RSTP
      • Communication between VLRs in different RSTP
  • Static anchor scheme
    • Communication between anchor VLR and any VLR in the same LSTP

(assuming MU has equal probability of being in each of the 7 VLRs)

    • Communication between two neighboring LSTP areas –same as dynamic anchor scheme
performance evaluation results 1
Performance evaluation-Results (1)
  • PCS network consists of 2-layer VLRs, LSTPs, RSTPs and HLR
  • Normalized cost: , ,
  • Number of application servers:
  • Call to Mobility ratio (CMR: ) – ratio of call arrival rate to mobility rate
  • Service to Mobility ratio (SMR: ) – ratio of service request rate to mobility rate
  • Cost rate – Total cost incurred per second (normalized with respect to the cost of transmitting a message between VLR and its LSTP)
performance evaluation results 2
Performance evaluation-Results (2)

Cost rate under different CMR and SMR values

performance evaluation results 3
Performance evaluation-Results (3)
  • Mobility rate fixed at 10 changes /hour
  • SMR = 1 to study the effect of varying CMR
  • Low call arrival – Centralized and fully distributed schemes worse than the anchor schemes
  • High call arrival – Centralized scheme is best. Dynamic anchor scheme is better than static.
  • Reason: Dynamic anchor scheme updates the HLR and moves the anchor to the current VLR thereby reducing service request costs and location update costs

Cost rate under different CMR values

performance evaluation results 4
Performance evaluation-Results (4)
  • Mobility rate fixed at 10 changes/hour
  • CMR = 1 to study the effect of SMR on cost rate
  • Low SMR – Fully distributed scheme is the worst due to movement of service proxy with mobility
  • High SMR – Fully distributed scheme performs best since the service proxy is with the location database

Cost rate under different SMR values

performance evaluation results 5
Performance evaluation – Results (5)
  • Increase in context transfer cost leads to increase in cost rate
  • Sensitivity: Fully distributed > Dynamic anchor scheme > Static anchor scheme > centralized

Cost rate under different context transfer cost values

performance evaluation results 6
Performance evaluation – Results (6)
  • Depending on the user’s SMR the “best” integrated scheme and decoupled scheme were compared
  • Integrated scheme converges with the decoupled scheme at high SMR values where the “influence” of mobility is less
  • Integrated scheme is better than basic scheme at high SMR values due to cost between the server and MU via HLR

Comparison of integrated with decoupled scheme

conclusions
Conclusions
  • Concept: Position the service proxy along with the location database of the MU
  • Centralized scheme: Suited for low SMR and high CMR
  • Distributed scheme: Best at high SMR and high CMR
  • Dynamic anchor scheme: Works best for a wide range of CMR and SMR values except when service context transfer costs are high
  • Static anchor scheme: Works reasonably well for a wide range of CMR and SMR values