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Aquatics. By: Taylor Edwards. The Hydrologic Cycle. Evaporation- liquid to gas Sublimation- solid to gas Evapotranspiration- water evaporates from plants or soil Condensation- water in the form of gas transforms into liquid Precipitation- rain, freezing rain, snow, sleet, or hail

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Aquatics

Aquatics

By: Taylor Edwards


The hydrologic cycle
The Hydrologic Cycle

Evaporation- liquid to gas

Sublimation- solid to gas

Evapotranspiration- water evaporates from plants or soil

Condensation- water in the form of gas transforms into liquid

Precipitation- rain, freezing rain, snow, sleet, or hail

Water continues moving in the form of runoff

-snowmelt

-surface: water moving over the landscape


Hydrologic cycle water storage
Hydrologic Cycle: Water Storage

  • Freshwater

    -receive inflow/water through: precipitation, overland runoff, ground-water seepage, tributaries

    -outflow through: evaporation, discharge to ground water

    -contributes to regulation of salinity of ocean

    -freshwater = 3% of all water on Earth

  • Icecaps/glaciers

  • Ocean

  • Groundwater

    -unsaturated zone: spaces in between soil particles are filled with water and air

    -saturated zone: spaces in between soil particles are filled completely by water


Watersheds
Watersheds

What is a watershed?

Land that water flows across/through on its way to common stream, river, or lake

Functions of an effective watershed program:

  • Maintain natural water storage

  • Prevent production of water pollutants

  • Regulate movement of pollutants

  • Minimizes amount of pollutants that enter water bodies

  • Support ecosystem


Features of a watershed
Features of a Watershed

Size

Geographic boundary

Topography

Soil type

Tributaries Forests

Dams Wetlands

Lakes/ponds Mountains

Rivers


Structure of a watershed physical
Structure of a Watershed: Physical

  • Climatology: climate and its causes

  • Geology: earth structures, processes, compositions, characteristics, and histories

    -Fluvial geomorphology: structure and

    dynamics of stream/river corridors

  • Hydrology- water in hydrologic cycle; water’s forms, distribution, circulation, and behavior; chemical/physical properties


Structure of a watershed ecological
Structure of a Watershed: Ecological

Words to know:

TERMS

  • Species

  • Population- organisms of same species living in specific area

  • Community- group of plant/animal populations living in specific area

  • Habitat- area where a certain plant or animal is capable of living and growing

  • Niche- an organism’s job in its ecosystem

  • Ecosystem- natural unit containing abiotic and biotic factors

  • Ecotone- ecosystem that forms a transition between two ecosystems

  • Biosphere- ranging from the atmosphere down into the Earth’s crust, area in which all known life forms exist


Structure of a watershed ecological1
Structure of a Watershed: Ecological

CONCEPTS

  • Life history strategies: processes involved in organisms reaching fitness

  • Carrying capacity: (K) the total number of organisms an environment can support, level at which growth of a species will stop

  • Competition: two or more species that struggle for a resource

  • Symbiosis:

    -mutualism

    -commensalism

    -amensalism: one organism is negatively effected while the other is not helped or harmed

    -parasitisim


Structure of a watershed biodiversity
Structure of a Watershed: Biodiversity

Four types:

  • Genetic

  • Population

  • Species

  • Habitat/ecological


Types of lakes
Types of Lakes

  • Glaciallakes- carved by the movement and weight of a glacier

  • Tectonic basins- formed by movement of Earth’s crust/ tectonic plates

  • Volcanic lakes- craters form basins, lava dams form basins in valleys

  • Landslides- rockfalls and mudslides form dams in streams/rivers

  • Solution lakes- gathering of water erodes areas of limestone, and forms cavities

  • Plunge pools- ancient waterfalls form deep pools

  • Oxbow lakes- former channel becomes separated from rest of river

  • Beaver-made- form dams in rivers/streams

  • Human-made


Structure of a watershed
Structure of a Watershed

Types of water systems:

  • Lotic Systems: flowing

    -longitudinal

    -lateral

    -vertical

    -temporal

  • Lentic Systems: still


Stream classification stream order
Stream Classification: Stream Order

Why is stream order important?

-size and strength of waterways

-water management

-determining organisms/life found in waterways

12 orders: 1 being the smallest, 12 the largest

  • 1st-3rd = headwater streams (feed into other waterways, generally do not have waterways flowing into them)

  • 4th-6th= medium streams

  • 7th-12th = rivers


Stream classification stream order1
Stream Classification: Stream Order

When two waterways of the same order meet and combine, they form a waterway of the next order in the hierarchy.

1st order stream + 1st order stream =

2nd order stream

2nd order stream + 2nd order stream =

3rd order stream

1

2

3

When two waterways of a different order meet, they do not increase in order. The waterway of smaller order simply ends and feeds into the bigger waterway.


Stream classification flow types
Stream Classification: Flow Types

  • Perennial- nearly year-round (90% or more)

    -higher order waterways

  • Intermittent- only during wet season (50% or less)

  • Ephemeral- during/shortly after large amounts of precipitation/snowmelt

    -lower order waterways (1st-2nd)


Landscape patterns
Landscape Patterns

  • Matrix

  • Patch

  • Mosaic


Groundwater
Groundwater

  • Groundwater moves through aquifers, which are areas of permeable rock

  • Largest supply of freshwater available to humans

    Examples:

    Layer of gravel, sand, limestone, sandstone

    Fractured rocks


How does water become groundwater
How does water become groundwater?

precipitation is infiltrated into the ground

Enters saturated zone

-replaces water that has evaporated/used by plants

(amount of water here will fluctuate with precipitation)

Water then flows to water table/saturated zone when plants/soil have necessary water

(spaces in rock/soil are completely filled with water)


Factors affecting quality of aquifers
Factors Affecting Quality of Aquifers

  • Porosity

  • “well-sorted” vs. “poorly sorted” grains/particles

  • Size of air pores

  • Connection of pores

  • Joints/Cracks/Fractures

    (Generally, the deeper the rock material is, the less porous/permeable it is)

    How does water leave an aquifer?

    -Springs

    -Seeping into streams

    -Pumped out by wells


Refilling of aquifers
Refilling of Aquifers

  • Naturally

    -through infiltration of precipitation

    -depends on depth of aquifer and rate of precipitation

  • Artificially

  • through recharge wells that pump water into the aquifer (more expensive, but more effective)

  • through spreading water over land surface/forming dams in streams


Two types of aquifers
Two Types of Aquifers

(all aquifers have a layer of impermeable rock below them)

  • Confined

    -an aquifer that is under a layer of impermeable rock

  • Unconfined

    -an aquifer that is not located under a layer of impermeable rock

    -can recharge nearby streams


Springs
Springs

Springs form when an aquifer becomes so full of water that the excess water spills over onto the land surface.

Classified according to:

-amount of water they discharged

-temperature of the water

-formation that they receive their water from

-forces that cause the spring


Groundwater quality
Groundwater Quality

Minerals

Most common dissolved mineral substances:

  • Sodium

  • Calcium

  • Magnesium

  • Potassium

  • Chloride

  • Bicarbonate

  • Sulfate

    -some materials can be beneficial/harmless, but other materials/large concentrations are harmful

not desirable for drinking is dissolved mineral amount is more than-

1,000 mg/L


Groundwater quality1
Groundwater Quality

  • “hardness” of water: determined by the amounts of calcium carbonate (minerals formed if water is evaporated) it contains

  • Iron found in water, particularly where water is acidic

    Causes of Declining Groundwater Quality:

    -municipal/industrial wastes

    -chemical fertilizers, herbicides, and pesticides

    -sewer leakage

    -faulty septic-tank operation

    -landfill leachates -intrusion of salt water


Uses of water
Uses of Water

  • Thermoelectric- mostly used for cooling at power plants

  • Hydroelectric- energy of falling water captured to make electricity

  • Irrigation- (largest use of fresh water in the United States) growing crops, frost protection, chemical applications, weed control, landscaping (golf courses, parks)

  • Public Supply- domestic, commercial, industrial, thermoelectric, public use

  • Industrial

  • Recreation

  • Other- self-supplied domestic, livestock, aquaculture, mining activities


Water conservation
Water Conservation

  • Ensure that all sinks, faucets, showers, toilets, etc. do not have leaks

  • Install water-saving appliances/fixtures

  • Turn off/save water whenever you can, ex: brushing teeth, washing dishes, showering

  • Avoid buying bottled water

  • Grow local plants that do not require large amounts of water

  • Water plants during cool parts of day to avoid evaporation

  • Collect water from gutters with barrel/container

  • Reuse greywater


Stream monitoring biological
Stream Monitoring: Biological

-observing macroinvertibrates to draw conclusions on quality/status of water and habitat

Why can these organisms help us determine stream quality?

They:

- Are affected by physical, chemical, & biological conditions

-can’t escape pollution

-show effects of pollution

-can live from 1 to several years

-represent different trophic levels of food web

-are found in most streams

-are a food source

-are easy to collect, identify


Stream monitoring chemical
Stream Monitoring: Chemical

specific characteristics at a specific time (More specific! )

Tests:

  • Temperature- help determine what organisms can live in the water

  • Dissolved oxygen (DO)-

    -necessary to life in the water

    -cool water holds more DO

    -ppm = parts per million (1 ppm = one milligram of oxygen per liter of water)

    -5 to 6 ppm for growth/activity

  • pH

    -amount of hydrogen ions in water, 6.0 to 8.2 best for most organisms

  • Water clarity

  • Ammonia

  • Hardness

  • Phosphorus

  • Nitrogen

  • Chlorine

  • Alkalinity


Wetlands
Wetlands

Functions of a wetland:

  • surface/subsurface water storage

  • Nutrient cycling

  • Particulate removal

  • Maintenance of plant/animal communities

  • Water filtration/purification

  • Groundwater recharge


Wetlands1
Wetlands

Wetland Values: characteristics of wetlands that are beneficial to people

  • Reduced flood damage

  • Water quality improvement

  • Fish/wildlife habitat enhancement


Types of wetlands
Types of Wetlands

Differentiating characteristics of wetlands:

  • Soils

  • Landscape

  • Climate

  • Water regime and chemistry

  • Vegetation

  • Human disturbance


Types of wetlands1
Types of Wetlands

  • MARSHES saturated, flooded, or ponded w/ water periodically

  • tidal

    -located along coastlines

    -salt and freshwater

    -influenced by tides, runoff, rivers, groundwater

  • non-tidal

    -found in poorly-drained depressions, floodplains, and around edges of lakes/rivers


Types of wetlands2
Types of Wetlands

2) Swamps surface water inputs, trees and shrubs

  • Forested Swamps

    -obtain floodwater from nearby streams/rivers

    -common deciduous trees

  • Shrub Swamps

    -like forested, but are dominated by shrubs

  • Mangrove Swamps

    -coastal

    -salt-tolerant trees, shrubs, and plants

    3) Other

  • Bogs

  • Fens


Negative impacts on wetlands
Negative Impacts on Wetlands

  • Hydrologic Alterations

    -deposition

    -drainage

    -dredging/stream channelization

    -increase in impervious surfaces

  • Pollution Inputs

    -runoff

    -air pollution

    -leaking from landfills/dumps

  • Vegetation Damage

    -domestic animals grazing

    -non-native plants


Aquatics
Laws

Federal

  • CWA = Clean Water Act

  • CZMA = Coastal Zone Management Act

  • ECA = Endangered Species Act

  • CAA = Clean Air Act

  • NEPA = National Environmental Policy Act

  • Marine Protection, Research, and Sanctuaries Act

  • SDWA = Safe Drinking Water Act

    State

  • CMPA = Coastal Marshlands Protection Act

  • SPA = Shore Protection Act

  • GWSA = Georgia Water Stewardship Act





Aquatics

Name 4 important features of a watershed. ecosystems is an ___________.


Aquatics

Define amensalism. ecosystems is an ___________.



Aquatics

How is a plunge pool formed? ecosystems is an ___________.





Aquatics

How many stream orders are there? system is made up of still water.


Aquatics

A 4 system is made up of still water.th order waterway would be considered a _________.

  • headwater stream

  • river

  • medium stream


Aquatics

2 system is made up of still water.

5

?

What is the order of the waterway represented by the black line?






Aquatics

True or False- table/saturated zone?

Generally, the closer the rock is to the surface, the less permeable and porous it will be.





Aquatics

What is 1 reason macroinvertebrates are helpful in determining the health of a stream?


Aquatics

Water is not considered suitable for drinking if the dissolved mineral amount is over ________.


Sources
Sources dissolved mineral amount is over ________.

Georgia Envirothon Water Study Materials

2011-2012

www.resourcemanagementstrategies.org