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Education Technology . Exploring Technology, Education, and Interaction with Classroom Presenter. Steven A. Wolfman Computer Science & Engineering University of Washington. http://www.cs.washington.edu/homes/wolf/work/. Mediating Artifact.

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exploring technology education and interaction with classroom presenter

Education Technology

Exploring Technology, Education, and Interaction with Classroom Presenter

Steven A. Wolfman

Computer Science & Engineering

University of Washington

http://www.cs.washington.edu/homes/wolf/work/

mediating artifact
Mediating Artifact

An external object or structure which participates in cognition by shaping or supporting thought.

Saljo: the significance of new technologies does not lie in their enhancing learning in a linear sense… the important point … is that they … transform basic features of how people communicate knowledge and skills … and how information is organised. In this sense, new media may imply that learning will become different.

Steve Wolfman Technology, Education, and Interaction

research history
Research History

UNIVERSITY LEVEL

Distance & Large Class Studies

[SIGCSE ’02]

Presenter

[SIGCSE ’04]

ClassroomFeedbackSystem

Ink Study

[CSCL ’03]

[CHI ’04]

Retro/ProspectiveFeedback Patterns

Structured Interaction Presentation system

[CHI ’03]

Steve Wolfman Technology, Education, and Interaction

outline
Outline

Distance & Large Class Studies

Presenter

ClassroomFeedbackSystem

Ink Study

Retro/ProspectiveFeedback Patterns

Structured Interaction Presentation system

Steve Wolfman Technology, Education, and Interaction

outline5
Outline

Distance & Large Class Studies

Presenter

ClassroomFeedbackSystem

InkStudy

Retro/ProspectiveFeedback Patterns

Structured Interaction Presentation system

Steve Wolfman Technology, Education, and Interaction

large class challenges
Large class challenges
  • Maintaining attention
  • Communication/Feedback
  • Spontaneous discussion
  • Management of class activities

Is PowerPoint evil?

Steve Wolfman Technology, Education, and Interaction

powerpoint good and evil
Good

Organization

Preparation

Sharing

Easier execution

Evil

Passivity

Simplification of ideas [Tufte]

Inflexibility

PowerPoint Good and Evil

Preliminary studies indicated instructors needed: flexibility and contextual writing

PETTT studies suggest students like: organization and preparation.

Steve Wolfman Technology, Education, and Interaction

slides as mediating artifact
Slides as Mediating Artifact
  • In the classroom:
    • facilitate communication
    • structure discussion
  • Outside the classroom:
    • used as memory aid
    • used as study guide
  • Across terms
    • reify course knowledge

Persistent context for communication!

Steve Wolfman Technology, Education, and Interaction

classroom presenter goals
Classroom Presenter Goals

REFER TO LODGE

  • Maintain strengths of slides (organization, preparation, sharing, etc.)
  • Mitigate weaknesses of slides(inflexibility, immobility, passivity, etc.)
  • Secure classroom adoption
  • Explore potential of computer-projected slides as mediating artifact
  • Prepare for more ambitious interventions

Steve Wolfman Technology, Education, and Interaction

presenter strategy
Presenter Strategy
  • Use TabletPC affordances (high-quality ink, wireless, portability)
  • Focus on instructor first(single, necessary point of adoption)
  • Distributed architecture & flexible rendering to support extensions

Steve Wolfman Technology, Education, and Interaction

slide11

Technological affordances:

High-quality ink, wireless comm., portability

Steve Wolfman Technology, Education, and Interaction

classroom deployments
Classroom Deployments

Spring ’02–Summer ’03 studies:

  • 21 courses
  • 15 instructors
  • 1,000+ students
  • Intro to Master’s across CSE
  • University of Washington, U. of Virginia, & U. of San Diego

Steve Wolfman Technology, Education, and Interaction

student instructor reaction
Student/Instructor Reaction
  • Positive comments and repeat use by instructors
  • Instructor survey: N = 9
  • Student surveys: N = 479

Omits all project participants.

Steve Wolfman Technology, Education, and Interaction

instructor innovations and suggestions
Instructor innovations and suggestions
  • “Donahue” Tablet
  • Instructor notes
  • Improved navigation (filmstrip and previews)
  • Collective brainstorming

Steve Wolfman Technology, Education, and Interaction

slide15

Instructor view with notes

Displayed view without notes

slide previews with navigation
Slide previews with navigation

Steve Wolfman Technology, Education, and Interaction

conclusions
Conclusions
  • Designed effective & adoptable system supporting HCI/ET research

To summarize all of that to one bullet point…

Steve Wolfman Technology, Education, and Interaction

ink study
Ink Study

Distance & Large Class Studies

Presenter

ClassroomFeedbackSystem

InkStudy

Retro/ProspectiveFeedback Patterns

Structured Interaction Presentation system

Steve Wolfman Technology, Education, and Interaction

expected use
Expected Use

SmallTalk, Self, Cecil, Java, C#

Steve Wolfman Technology, Education, and Interaction

actual use
Actual Use

Steve Wolfman Technology, Education, and Interaction

study motivators
Study Motivators
  • Unexpected style of ink use
  • Feature discovery issues
  • Unexpected feature use
  • UI problems

AM

Marginal diags w/out min

Hygenic erase

Unintended scrolling

Steve Wolfman Technology, Education, and Interaction

ink study22
Ink Study

Interpretive analysis [Erickson] of 3 courses:

  • Distance courses (, A/V and ink archives)
  • “Slideware-style”
  • Experienced instructors

Hello world! is 14 strokes

Steve Wolfman Technology, Education, and Interaction

prevalence of attentional marks
Prevalence of Attentional Marks

Segmented strokes from six hours of lecture into coherent episodes and coded into four categories:

Steve Wolfman Technology, Education, and Interaction

Will also briefly come back to this.

understanding attentional marks
Understanding Attentional Marks

Properties:

  • brief, simple markings
  • occur with speech
  • augment meaning of speech
  • ad hoc form

Is there a linguistic context in which to understand these marks?

Steve Wolfman Technology, Education, and Interaction

hand gestures
Hand Gestures

Hand gestures [McNeill]:

  • are synchronous w/speech
  • are co-expressive w/speech
  • are global-synthetic/non-combinatoric
  • lack standard of form

Attentional marks share these properties.

Steve Wolfman Technology, Education, and Interaction

gesture types iconic
Gesture Types: Iconic

First of five gesture types

direct representations

Steve Wolfman Technology, Education, and Interaction

gesture types metaphoric
Gesture Types: Metaphoric

abstract representations

Steve Wolfman Technology, Education, and Interaction

gesture types deictic cohesive
Gesture Types: Deictic & Cohesive

Steve Wolfman Technology, Education, and Interaction

gesture types beats
Gesture Types: Beats

Insight into “other”?

BRIEF & emphasize framework helps understanding.

SEGUE: also helps understand breakdowns…

Steve Wolfman Technology, Education, and Interaction

persistent representation vs ephemeral meaning
Persistent Representation vs. Ephemeral Meaning

Steve Wolfman Technology, Education, and Interaction

persistent representation vs ephemeral meaning31
Persistent Representation vs. Ephemeral Meaning

Steve Wolfman Technology, Education, and Interaction

design recommendations
Design Recommendations
  • Non-homogenous color to distinguish strokes
  • Age cues to indicate co-occurrence and preserve ordering
  • Incremental rendering for process information

Steve Wolfman Technology, Education, and Interaction

conclusions33
Conclusions
  • Designed effective & adoptable system supporting HCI/ET research
  • Identified important patterns of ink use and framework for understanding ink use

Steve Wolfman Technology, Education, and Interaction

structured interaction presentation
Structured Interaction Presentation

Distance & Large Class Studies

Presenter

ClassroomFeedbackSystem

InkStudy

Retro/ProspectiveFeedback Patterns

Structured Interaction Presentation system

Steve Wolfman Technology, Education, and Interaction

richer mediating artifact
Richer Mediating Artifact

CSCL has been “a move from ‘sage-on-the-stage’ … to ‘guide-by-the-side’”.

New CSCL systems will be “much more like the ‘conductor-of-performances’ for an orchestra: students … [will contribute] to an overall performance.”

[Roschelle & Pea]

Leader-of-theater?

Steve Wolfman Technology, Education, and Interaction

goals of structured interaction presentation system sip
Goals of Structured Interaction Presentation System (SIP)
  • Mitigate more PowerPoint evil
  • Support intuitive and flexible design
  • Facilitate interaction in class
  • Enable new kinds of interaction

Support the design, use, sharing, and reflection on the “orchestra’s” score.

Passivity, simplification

“transitions”, apprehension

e.g., data reuse, intentional grouping, DHC

Steve Wolfman Technology, Education, and Interaction

slide37

“Mock” class using 24 CS students, staff, and faculty

NOT on CS

50 minutes long

Took ~1 hour to convert static => interactive

Designed INSIDE PPT USING SIP, etc.

Steve Wolfman Technology, Education, and Interaction

try your hand
Try Your Hand
  • Are these on the same or distinct topics?
  • Which would you rather discuss?

Of those who died from receiving the vaccine, what percentage had compro-mised immune systems?

What are the death rates for specific groups who received this vaccine?

Steve Wolfman Technology, Education, and Interaction

group members
Group Members

Steve Wolfman Technology, Education, and Interaction

group winners
Group “Winners”

Steve Wolfman Technology, Education, and Interaction

sip architecture
SIP Architecture

Presenter + SIP exercises

Presentation

design

environment

Instructor view

SQL back-end for reliability/archival reuse.

Presentation/Widgetdatabase

Viewer

scrnsht

Viewer

scrnsht

Interactive widget designenvironment

Viewer

scrnsht

Student views

Pluggable widgets. Support interactive version of PPT vision.

Steve Wolfman Technology, Education, and Interaction

conclusions48
Conclusions
  • Designed effective & adoptable system supporting HCI/ET research
  • Identified important patterns of ink use and framework for understanding ink use
  • Designed system for interaction support
  • Developed new interaction styles

Steve Wolfman Technology, Education, and Interaction

conclusions49
Conclusions
  • Designed effective & adoptable system supporting HCI/ET research
  • Identified important patterns of ink use and framework for understanding ink use
  • Designed system for interaction support
  • Developed new interaction styles
  • Designed feedback system
  • Discovered new patterns of interaction

Steve Wolfman Technology, Education, and Interaction

future directions
Future Directions

Distance & Large Class Studies

Presenter

ClassroomFeedbackSystem

InkStudy

Retro/ProspectiveFeedback Patterns

Structured Interaction Presentation system

Steve Wolfman Technology, Education, and Interaction

future directions51
Future Directions

Presenter

InkStudy

Refer back to “expected behavior” slide.

Deixis resolutionfor blind students

Augmented transcripts

Steve Wolfman Technology, Education, and Interaction

future directions52
Future Directions
  • “Summary” note-taking habits for students
  • Student or instructor interaction goals (e.g., regular question solicitation)
  • Instructor speaking habits (e.g., speed, audible pauses, deixis, etc.)

Support pedagogical decisions that are difficult to enforce consciously.

Best practices.

Steve Wolfman Technology, Education, and Interaction

related systems
Related Systems
  • Ubiquitous computing:
    • eClass [Abowd et al.]
    • ActiveClass [Griswold et al.]
    • Cell-phone feedback [Brittain]
  • Education/Educational Technology:
    • ClassTalk [Dufresne et al.]
    • Debbie/DyKnow [Berque et al.]
    • WILD [Roschelle & Pea]
  • HCI: Pebbles [Myers et al.]

Steve Wolfman Technology, Education, and Interaction

related pedagogy
Related Pedagogy
  • Active learning [Bonwell and Eison]
  • Active learning in CS [McConnell]
  • Classroom Assessment Techniques “CATs” [Angelo & Cross]
  • CATs in CS [Schwarm & VanDeGrift]
  • Collaborative Learning [Johnson2]

Steve Wolfman Technology, Education, and Interaction

urls for more info
URLs for More Info

Steve Wolfman (including publications):http://www.cs.washington.edu/homes/wolf/work/

UW CS&E Education & Ed. Tech. Group:http://www.cs.washington.edu/research/edtech/

Classroom Presenter:http://www.cs.washington.edu/education/dl/presenter/

Steve Wolfman Technology, Education, and Interaction

question
Question
  • What are the three strongest motivating factors for you as a software developer

Steve Wolfman Technology, Education, and Interaction

defining efficiency
Defining Efficiency
  • Asymptotic Complexity - how running time scales as function of size of input
  • Why is this a reasonable definition?

Steve Wolfman Technology, Education, and Interaction

measuring empirical complexity linear vs binary search
Measuring Empirical Complexity:Linear vs. Binary Search
  • Find a item in a sorted array of length N
  • Binary search algorithm:

Steve Wolfman Technology, Education, and Interaction

educational technology
Educational Technology

…in the winter of 1813 & '14 … I attended a mathematical school kept in Boston…On entering [the] room, we were struck at the appearance of an ample Black Board suspended on the wall… I had never heard of such a thing before. [Samuel J. May, 1855]

Steve Wolfman Technology, Education, and Interaction

slides as externalization mediating artifact
Slides as Externalization/Mediating Artifact

Saljo: the significance of new technologies does not lie in their enhancing learning in a linear sense… the important point about new technologies is that they, if they are powerful enough, transform basic features of how people communicate knowledge and skills in society and how information is organised. In this sense, new media may imply that learning will become different.

Technologies are ultimately about the regulation and improvement of human relationships

Draw mental arith–

paper and pencil – mem

Elec calculator --alg:

communicates in familiar

symbolic representation

HK Jade market : comm burden

Steve Wolfman Technology, Education, and Interaction