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Synthèse cours CSCW. Définitions, Systèmes, Critiques. Emprunts : D.Cardon (France Telecom) R.Unland (University of Essen) S.Levan (MAIN consultants) J.Landay (University of Berkeley). 1-Des définitions. Définitions : CSCW. Computer Supported Collaborative Work

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Synthèse cours CSCW

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  1. Synthèse cours CSCW Définitions, Systèmes, Critiques • Emprunts : • D.Cardon (France Telecom)R.Unland (University of Essen)S.Levan (MAIN consultants)J.Landay (University of Berkeley)

  2. 1-Des définitions

  3. Définitions : CSCW • Computer Supported Collaborative Work • There does not exist a commonly agreed on definition • CSCW looks at how groups work and seeks to discover how technology (especially computers) can help them work

  4. CSCW vs Groupware

  5. Definition : Groupware • Robert Johansen: Groupware = “Computer aids” • ... a generic term for specialized computer aids that are designed for the use of collaborative work groups. Typically, these groups are small project-oriented teams that have important tasks and tight deadlines. Groupware can involve software, hardware, services, and/or group process support. • C. Ellis, S. Gibbs, G. Rein (MCC) 1st: Groupware = “systems” • Computer-based systems that support groups of people engaged in a common task (or goal) and that provide an interface to a shared environment • C. Ellis, S. Gibbs, G. Rein (MCC) 2nd: Groupware = “software application” • Class of applications, for small groups and for organizations, arising from the merging of computers and large information bases and communications technology. These applications may or may not specially support cooperation. • Software for small or narrowly focused groups, not organization-wide support

  6. Definition : groupware • H. Krasner, J. McInroy, D. Walz Groupware is computer technology that • actively facilitates two or more users working on a common task, possibly simultaneously, using a shared environment and • provides synergistic mechanisms for coordinating each user's actions with respect to the rest of the group and the system. • H. Lewe, H. Krcmar • The notion of Groupware indicates the computer-based support of work groups or project teams. Support may mean support by special software and hardware, by information and communication services as well as support of group work. In contrast to individual data processing with groupware collaboration / cooperation are important issues. • Groupware in a narrow sense is a tool, which can only be used by a group but not by an individual.

  7. Distinction beetween CSCW and Groupware • Groupware and CSCW mean the same • Groupware is the more restricted notion • It only considers (small) groups but not large organizations • Groupware mainly concentrates on the technology while CSCW also tries to understand and consider human behavior • Groupware implies that some kind of • Software and • Hardware is involved/used

  8. Le groupware est un composant dans les systémesde Gestion des Connaissances • Moteurs de recherche • Outils de veille • Gestion des connaissances et des compétences • Messagerie • Agenda electroniques • Groupware • Personalisation de l’information (Push) • Gestion des ressources humaines • Portail d’entreprise et publication Web • Gestion électronique des documents, bases de données • Formulaires et workflow

  9. CSCL • Computer Suported Collaborative Learning • The obvious difference between CSCL and CSCW is context or purpose: CSCL=learning and CSCW=work • CSCL supports "the acquisition by individuals of knowledge, skills, or attitudes occurring as the result of group interaction. • CSCL supports the development of shared mental models, shared purpose, common practices of interaction and communication («A world known in common »)

  10. 2-Les systèmes

  11. 2.1 -Classification des systèmes de groupware

  12. 2.1-bis Taxonomy

  13. 2.2- Types de cooperation et de groupes • Les 3 niveaux de coopération : co-ordination (objectif pre-défini, rôles individuels pré-définis) co-operation (obectif pre-défini, rôles à construire) co-construction (objectif à construire) • Trois types de groupes : pairs : 2 people small groups : <10 people large groups : >10

  14. 2.2 bis -Types de cooperation Complete a task Share info Conference Solve a task (project)

  15. 2.3 Classification des composants des sytémes Groupware Trois catégories de composants «CCC »: • Pour la Communication • Chat, Email, conférence électronique • Pour la Coordination • Agenda, gestion des tâches et des roles, planning • Pour la Collaboration / Construction • Shared Editors

  16. 2.3 bis - Classification des composants Théme : Cooperation vs Collaboration

  17. 2.4 - Classification des outils Structure Interaction

  18. 2.4 bis - Classification des outils :Les 7 familles du CSCW • Les outils coopératifs asynchrones (Workflow management system) : Information Lens, Lotus Notes, LinkWork, Coordinator. • Lesespaces de dessin partagés : Videodraw, TeamWorkStation, DigitalDesk. • Les P.C. coopératifs : Cruiser, Portholes, Conference Desk, Montage, GroupDesk, Piazza, Forum, DVC, Diva. • Les tableaux blancs électroniques : LiveBoards, Smart. • Les salles de réunions électroniques : Colab, Cognoter, GroupSystems, l’Amsterdam Conversation Environment, Dolphin. • Les mediaspace : Cavecat, Rave, Collab, VideoWindow, Telecollaboration, Kasmer, Thunderwire (audiospace). • Les environnements virtuels (Cooperative virtual environment; CVE): Dive, Massive, Freewalk. • + Mobiles multimédia… Etc.

  19. 2.4 ter Classification des outils • Asynchronous Groupware • Email • Newsgroups and mailing lists • Workflow systems • Hypertext • Group calendars • Collaborative writing systems • Synchronous or Realtime Groupware • Shared whiteboards • Video communications. • Chat systems. • Decision support systemsThey provide tools for brainstorming, critiquing ideas, putting weights and probabilities on events and alternatives, and voting. • Multi-player games.

  20. 3. Des exemples de systèmes groupware • Lotus : Notes , Domino • Novell : Groupwise • Microsoft : SharePoint • Groove Networks : GrooveGroove is desktop collaboration software for sharing files and workingwith others on documents, tasks, projects and decisions. ... • Twiki, Bscw , ….

  21. 3. Des exemples …Microsoft SharePoint team services • Core Function • Ad hoc team collaboration • Web Site • Team Web sites • Search Capabilities • Documents within team Web site and sub Webs • Discussion and Notifications • Discussions • Notifications • Surveys • Customization • Browser-based, Microsoft FrontPage® 2002, and SDK • Web Parts and SDK • Document Management • Publishing • Client Applications • Browser, Microsoft Office XP, FrontPage 2002 • Browser, Microsoft Windows® Explorer, Office 2000 or Office XP • Roles-based Security • Customizable roles: Administrator, Advanced Author, Author, Contributor, and Browser • Storage • Microsoft SQL Server™

  22. Se connecter aux acteurs externes Contrôler la chaîne de valeur Alliances, marchés et communautés électroniques Entreprise Étendue Capitaliser le potentiel intellectuel et les expertises Reconfigurer les pratiques essentielles du métier Encourager la communication transversale Entreprise unifié Groupe de travail Accroître l ’efficacité de l ’échange d ’informations Améliorer la conduite et le contrôle des processus Permettre la découverte et la prise de décision collectives Communiquer Collaborer Coordonner Complexité du travail Potentiel Lotus : le modèle des 9 cases Extension du groupe Complexité du travail

  23. Un exemple de système : Twiki • What are the Main Features of TWiki? • TWiki is a mature, full featured web based collaboration system: • Any web browser:Edit existing pages or create new pages by using any web browser. There is no need for ftp or http put to upload pages. • Edit link: To edit a page, simply click on the Edit link at the bottom of every page. • Auto links: Web pages are linked automatically. You do not need to learn HTML commands to link pages. • Text formatting: Simple, powerful and easy to learn text formatting rules. Basically you write text like you would write an e-mail. • Webs: Pages are grouped into TWiki webs (or collections). This allows you to set up separate collaboration groups. • Search:Full text search with/without regular expressions. See a sample search result. • E-mail notification: Get automatically notified when something has changed in a TWiki web. Subscribe in WebNotify. • Structured content: Use TWiki Forms to classify and categorize unstructured web pages and to create simple workflow systems. • File attachments: Upload and download any file as an attachment to a page by using your browser. This is similar to file attachments in an e-mail, but it happens on web pages. • Revision control: All changes to pages and attachments are tracked. Retrieve previous page revisions and differences thereof. Find out who changed what and when. • Access control: Define groups and impose fine grained read and write access restrictions based on groups and users. • Variables: Use variables to dynamically compose your pages. This allows you for example to dynamically build a table of contents: include other pages; or show a search result embedded in a page. • TWiki Plugins: Enhance the TWiki functionality with server side Plugin modules. Developers can create Perl Plugins using the TWiki Plugin API. Application platform: Developers use the TWiki platform to create web-based applications. The TWiki Variables, Plugins and Plugin API offer a rich environment where domain-specific applications can be built efficiently. An example application is the XpTrackerPlugin which allows teams to track Extreme Programming (XP) projects. • Templates and skins: A flexible templating system separates program logic and presentation. Skins overwrite template headers and footers; page content is unaffected. • Managing pages: Individual pages can be renamed, moved and deleted through the browser. • Managing users: Web based user registration and change of password. • What's new: See recent changes of TWiki webs. The change log can also be exported in XML RSS format for news syndication. • Statistics: Create Statistics of TWiki webs. Find out most popular pages and top contributors. • Preferences: Three levels of preferences: TWikiPreferences for site-level; WebPreferences for each web; and user level preferences. • Topic locking: Users are warned if a page is being edited by an other person. This is to prevent contention, e.g. simultaneous page editing. • Referred-By: Find out back-links to a page. • ... plus other features not listed here.

  24. Nestor : un browser + avec des fonctions collaboratives • Synchrones peer-to-peer ChatNavigation coupléeEdition partagée des cartes et du sac • Synchrones ChatNavigation coupléeNavigation par tutoratEchange d’ URLs, de clipboard, de cartes, de surlignages ...Fusion de cartesAide à l’activitéTutorat à distance • A-synchrones MessagerieBookmarks communsBibliothèque de cartesAide à l’activité (en cours de développement) • A-Synchrones peer-to-peer Recherche et telechargement

  25. D’autre types de systémes Groupware • MUDA MUD or Multi-User Dungeon is an inventively structured social experience on the Internet, managed by a computer program and often involving a loosely organized context or theme, such as a rambling old castle with many rooms or a period in national history. Some MUDs are ongoing adventure games; others are educational in purpose; and others are simply social. MUDs existed prior to the World Wide Web, accessible through Telnet to a computer that hosted the MUD. Today, many MUDs can be accessed through a Web site and some are perhaps better known as "3-D worlds." • MUD participants adopt a character or avatar when they join or log in to a MUD. Typically, you can describe your avatar to the other participants. Each MUD has its own name, special character and ambience, and set of rules. MUDs are run by advanced participants or programmers called wizards. • MOO • MUD Object Oriented" That is the meaning of the acronym, MOO, but even this has an embedded acronym, MUD. The most appropriate current meaning for MUD is "Multi-User Domain." • A more functional definition is that MOOs and MUDs are text-based virtual reality environments that foster synchronous communication between persons and allow for creative building of virtual spaces. Many implementations of MOOs today incorporate web-based features so that the characteristic that a MOO is purely text-based is no longer totally accurate. • The designation that a MOO is "object-oriented" has more to do with the underlying code and nothing to do with the feel or look of an actual MOO or MUD in practice. • Everything is an object. Rooms are objects, exits are objects, possessions are objects, even your MOO alter-ego/avatar is an object. We'll be looking at how you (1) make objects, and (2) write verbs that allow you to do Interesting Things with those objects Question de métaphore : MUD : expérience sociale, MOO : objets

  26. 3-Critiques • Issues • Successes • Cause of failure • Future trends

  27. Groupware socio-technical issues • Technical : Infrastructure and groupware systems • Technical and psychological : Awareness of others and their actions • Technical : Synchronous/Asynchronous communication • Technical and psychological : Interaction paradigms • Social and psychological : Participation • Psychological and social : Sustaining relationships • Role support • Shared visual spaces • Mobility • Management and technical : Organizational change • Management and technical : Knowledge management

  28. Type of groupware and groupware issues • Types of Groupware and Groupware Issues • >>awareness:Awareness in Collaborative Systems, The aware-cscw mailing list • >>collaborative drawing and writing:The Conversation Board, DistEdit and DistEmacs, Multi-User Editor Index (Project Names) Distance Education Clearinghouse (UWisconsin), POLIS - Project for On-Line Instructional Support (UArizona) • email: Yahoo - Email, Galaxy - Email • groupware toolkits:GroupKit, Habanero (NCSA, Java groupware support), Tango Java-based collaboratory system (Syracuse U.), The Clock Language, COAST (Cooperative Application Systems Tech, GMD-IPSI), DreamTeam • MUDs: Yahoo - MUD programming • newsgroups:GroupLens (filters Usenet postings based on predictions of interest), See Below • scientific collaboration:NCSA Collage (a collaborative data analysis tool) • >>shared virtual spaces:TeamRooms (2D chat, whiteboard, etc., UCalgary), The Contact Consortium (a consortium for virtual worlds) • shared windows and shared applications:JAMM (Java Applets Made Multiuser) • video communications:Video Communications Bibliography, Yahoo - Videoconf and Videoconf. companies. • virtual reality:Collaborative Work in Virtual Environments • web-based conferencing:Conferencing on the Web - Discussion Forums (David R. Woolley), The Well, The Utne Café, COW (Conferencing on the Web, SFSU), ForumOne search engine for forums • workflow:Workflow Management Coalition, Workflow and Reengineering International Association, Workflow-Management and Groupware (Fraunhofer-ISST)

  29. Groupware successes

  30. WH Lessons • At most 30 users in a community of 300 • Usage required frequent reminders and urging by the developer • Occasional bursts of use followed by extended passive observation • Chatting rare but occasionally animated, typically in response to an article Typique !

  31. Why Does Groupware Fail? • Disparity between who does work and who gets benefit • Threats to existing power structures • Insufficient critical mass of users • Violation of social taboos • Arguments over measures of success

  32. What Is the Biggest CSCW Success Story? What’s Next? • Email • Instant messages • World Wide Web • Mobile telephones • Video conferencing

  33. Success and failure

  34. Des technologies incertaines • Des technologies avancées (tactile, RV, 3D) en attente de « succès » • Ce qui marche le mieux n’est pas né dans le CSCW : la messagerie électronique, l’Internet, NetMeeting, etc. • Beaucoup de concepts en stand-by : Mediaspace, salle de réunion électronique, etc. • Quelques outils à diffusion plus large : Lotus Notes et SmartBoard • Des usages expérimentaux • Concepteurs = utilisateurs • Des utilisations en contexte « naturel » • des prototypes qui prolifèrent à l ’intérieur des laboratoires sans être soumis aux rapports de force créés par la mise sur le marché. Très forte indécision sur la forme des prototypes

  35. Entre l’individu et l’organisation : le groupe de travail • Le refus du déterminisme technologique • Affirme le caractère contextuel des activités coopératives. • Plus de complexité dans l ’articulation relations inter-personnelles que dans les rapports homme/machine. • Dramatisation de l’écart entre travail réel et prescrit. • Variabilité et diversité des rôles organisationnels (dynamique de groupe, etc.) • Construction de représentations partagées des activités. • La participation de l’usager à la conception • Ethnographie de situations naturelles. • Design itératif. • Une conception beaucoup plus «dense» de l’usager et de ses compétences.

  36. L’avenir : deux approches opposéespar leur conception de l’activité1-La méthode MAIN La démarche : comment relier processus métier et environnement de travail collaboratifLa Méthode MAIN® a développé une démarche en cinq temps baptisée « Logiques & Règles d'Usage » des outils de travail collaboratif. Cette démarche s'applique et s'adapte en fonction des caractéristiques d'usage des environnements techniques de travail collaboratif. Autrement dit, la même démarche va s'adapter à une plate-forme QuickPlace™ (IBM Lotus) comme à une plate-forme eRoom™ (Documentum eRoom) comme à une plate-forme PHPGroupware (logiciel libre) ou à n'importe quel autre environnement. Les cinq temps de la démarche sont les suivants :§ Modéliser les activités d'un processus§ Identifier les situations de travail§ Identifier les situations de communication§ Identifier les outils de travail collaboratif les plus appropriés§ Enoncer les règles d'usage les plus efficaces

  37. L’avenir,2-Une autre approche : Vers des « principes CSCW » • L’action, la coopération est une improvisation • Aménager l’environnement de travail pour établir des bouclages perception/action. • Faciliter des possibilités d’awareness à bas niveau. • Arbitrage entre travail visible et invisible • Résister à la formalisation de système de connaissance déclarative (cf. diagnostic médical d ’A. Cicourel). • Sous-déterminer les modèles d’activité. • Créer des « dispositifs d’articulation » entre activité dans environnement local et avec l’univers distant. • Sensibilité à la question de la publicité et de la privacy. • Créer des « représentants » transportables sur des supports différents. • Image vidéo des personnes. • Dossier médical. • Réintroduire des artefacts sensoriels et limiter les inscriptions numériques.

  38. Pour « tout » savoir 