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Scientific Revolutions: Historical Perspective . The rise of new bodies of knowledge: Episteme vs. Techne. episteme vs. techne. episteme - scientia (theoretical knowledge – knowledge of causes ) techne - ars (crafts, know-how: knowing by doing ). episteme vs. techne.

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Scientific revolutions historical perspective

Scientific Revolutions: Historical Perspective 

The rise of new bodies of knowledge: Episteme vs. Techne


Episteme vs techne
episteme vs.techne

  • episteme - scientia(theoretical knowledge – knowledge of causes)

  • techne - ars(crafts,know-how: knowing by doing)


Episteme vs techne1
episteme vs.techne

  • scientia(theoretical knowledge)ars(crafts)

Bringing techneinto the scholarly world


Paracelsus 1493 1541 philippus theophrastus aureolus bombastus von hohenheim
Paracelsus (1493-1541)Philippus Theophrastus AureolusBombastus von Hohenheim

Bringing medicaltechneinto the scholarly world


Hippocrates of kos bc 460 370
Hippocrates of Kos (BC 460–370)

(by Rubens)

  • Claudius Galenus(AD 129–c.200)


The hippocratic tradition
The Hippocratic Tradition

  • The Canon of Medicine(1025)القانون في الطب‎ al-Qānūnfī al-Ṭibb

  • IbnSīnā, Avicenna (980–1037)

  • The Book of Healing(1027) القانون في الطب کتاب الشفاءKitab Al-Shifa


The hippocratic tradition1
The Hippocratic Tradition

  • Galenus(AD 129–c.200)

  • Healing:

  • Herbs,

  • Diet,

  • Bloodletting

  • IbnSīnā(980–1037)


Paracelsus 1493 1541
Paracelsus (1493-1541)

  • “Hippocrates had the true medical spirit but Galen and other sophists perverted his views.”


Paracelsus 1493 15411
Paracelsus (1493-1541)

  • “Hippocrates had the true medical spirit but Galen and other sophists perverted his views.”

Medical Knowledge: God  Apollo  Machaon Podalirius Hippocrates

“In them the light of Nature shone forth. But the Evil One interfered and caused medicine to fall into the hands of the antiphysicians so that it became entangled with persons and sophistries.”


Paracelsus 1493 15412
Paracelsus (1493-1541)

  • “Hippocrates had the true medical spirit but Galen and other sophists perverted his views.”

  • Also - New diseases:

  • Syphilis

  • Imported from the new world


Paracelsus 1493 15413
Paracelsus (1493-1541)

  • “Sickness and health in the body rely on the harmony of man (microcosm) and Nature (macrocosm).”

  • Typical Hermetic View


Robert fludd 1574 1637
Robert Fludd, (1574 –1637)

  • Paracelsian

  • Astrologer

  • MathematicianCosmologistQabalistRosicrucian


Scientific revolutions historical perspective


Paracelsus 1493 15414
Paracelsus (1493-1541)

  • “Microcosm and Macrocosm” as a practical principle: humans must have certain balances of minerals in their bodies, and hence illnesses of the body can be cured with chemical remedies and minerals.


Paracelsus 1493 15415
Paracelsus (1493-1541)

  • Chemical remedies and minerals – sympathies between materials and parts of the body

  • Hermetic and occult knowledge

  • Alchemy

  • Astrology


Paracelsus 1493 15416

Paracelsus pioneered the use of chemicals and minerals in medicine. Hishermeticalviews

Paracelsus (1493-1541)

  • Chemical remedies and minerals – sympathies between materials and parts of the body


Paracelsus 1493 15417
Paracelsus medicine. His (1493-1541)

  • Hermetic and occult knowledge

  • Alchemy

  • Astrology

  • Opposition to (and scorn for) scholasticism

  • Directobservation of nature as the source of uncovering knowledge (occult: macro-micro)

  • Knowledge of nature driven by practical needs

  • Vernacular texts (German)


Episteme vs techne2
episteme vs. medicine. Histechne

  • scientia(theoretical knowledge)ars(craft)

Bringing techneinto the scholarly world


Scientific revolutions historical perspective

Paracelsus medicine. His (1493-1541)

  • Some opposed his cosmological views, but accepted his treatments.

  • Grosse Wundartzney (1536): how to cure wounds created by gunshot


Scientific revolutions historical perspective

Paracelsus medicine. His (1493-1541)

  • Vom Holtz GuaicogründlichenHeylung (1529); FranzösichenKranckheit (1530)

  • A critic of herbal treatments of syphilis


Paracelsus 1493 15418
Paracelsus (1493-1541) medicine. His

Bringing medicaltechneinto the scholarly world

Vesalius' Fabrica(1543): problems with Galen’s anatomical observations

William Harvey (1578-1657): circulation of blood (1628): problems with Galen’s physiology


Scientific revolutions historical perspective

Paracelsus medicine. His (1493-1541)

  • Von der Bergsucht oder Bergkranckheiten drey Bücher(1530)

  • On the Miners' Sickness and Other Diseases of Miners


Georg agricola 1494 1555
Georg Agricola medicine. His (1494-1555)

De Re Metallica (1530)

Bringing techneinto the scholarly world


Georg agricola 1494 15551
Georg Agricola medicine. His (1494-1555)

De Re Metallica (1530)

  • Certainly, if mining is a shameful and discreditable employment for a gentleman because slaves once worked mines, then agriculture also will not be a very creditable employment, because slaves once cultivated the fields, and even to-day do so among the Turks; nor will architecture be considered honest, because some slaves have been found skilful in that profession; nor medicine, because not a few doctors have been slaves; nor will any other worthy craft, because men captured by force of arms have practised it.


Georg agricola 1494 15552
Georg Agricola medicine. His (1494-1555)

De Re Metallica (1530)

  • Yet agriculture, architecture, and medicine are none the less counted amongst the number of honourable professions; therefore, mining ought not for this reason to be excluded from them. But suppose we grant that the hired miners have a sordid employment. We do not mean by miners only the diggers and other workmen, but also those skilled in the mining arts, and those who invest money in mines. Amongst them can be counted kings, princes, republics, and from these last the most esteemed citizens. And finally, we include amongst the overseers of mines the noble Thucydides, the historian, whom the Athenians placed in charge of the mines of Thasos.


Georg agricola 1494 15553
Georg Agricola medicine. His (1494-1555)

De Re Metallica (1530)

  • New Latin technical terms (like in botany):

  • Changing accepted meanings of existing terms

  • Combining existing terms into new ones

  • Translation from German to Latin

  • Adding Latin post or pre-fixes to German terms


Scientific revolutions historical perspective

  • The space between two veins is called an  medicine. Hisintervenium; this interval between the veins, if it is between venaedilatatae is entirely hidden underground. If, however, it lies between venaeprofundae then the top is plainly in sight, and the remainder is hidden.


Georg agricola 1494 15554
Georg Agricola medicine. His (1494-1555)

De Re Metallica (1530)

Bringing techneinto the scholarly world

A truly new trend: knowing nature in order to dominate nature


Scientific revolutions historical perspective

M medicine. His

N

A

B

O

Archimedes(287-212(BC

N:M::AO: OB


Scientific revolutions historical perspective

The Archimedes Myth medicine. His


Federico commandino 1506 1575
Federico medicine. HisCommandino (1506–1575 (


Federico commandino 1506 15751
Federico medicine. HisCommandino (1506–1575 (

On Floating Bodies

  • On the Equilibrium of Planes (Law of Lever)


Scientific revolutions historical perspective

Urbino medicine. His


Bernardino baldi 1553 1617
Bernardino Baldi medicine. His (1553–1617 (


Guidobaldo del monte 1545 1607
Guidobaldo del Monte medicine. His (1545 - 1607 (


Philosophers engineers
Philosophers-Engineers medicine. His

Dissolving the traditional distinction:

episteme vs.techne


William gilbert 1544 1603
William Gilbert medicine. His (1544-1603)

De Magnete (1600)


William gilbert 1544 16031
William Gilbert medicine. His (1544-1603)

De Magnete(1600)

  • The Earth as a giant magnet

  • A decidedly “experimental” approach

  • Distinguished between electricity and magnetism


William gilbert 1544 16032
William Gilbert medicine. His (1544-1603)

De Magnete(1600)

  • Adopted heliocentrism(unlikely that the planetary spheres can circle the earth in one day)

  • The planets are driven by souls (the Earth has a magnetic soul)

  • Believed in cosmic harmonies and astrology


William gilbert 1544 16033
William Gilbert medicine. His (1544-1603)

De Magnete(1600)

  • Totally opposed to Aristotelian philosophy of nature

  • Hostile and dismissive of university culture:


William gilbert 1544 16034
William Gilbert medicine. His (1544-1603)

De Magnete(1600)

“As for the causes of magnetic movements, referred to in the schools of philosophers to the four elements and to prime qualities, these we leave for roaches and moths to prey upon.”


William gilbert 1544 16035
William Gilbert medicine. His (1544-1603)

De Magnete(1600)

“Practical workers with nature, like navigators, metallurgists and farmers, understand more about the nature of the Earth, and earthy matter, than professors of scholastic Aristotelian philosophy.”


Giambattista della porta 1535 1615
Giambattista medicine. HisdellaPorta (1535-1615)

MagiaeNaturalis(1558)

“An iron needle rubbed with diamond also points north.”


William gilbert 1544 16036
William Gilbert medicine. His (1544-1603)

De Magnete(1600)

“Now this is contrary to our magnetic rules; and hence we made the experiment ourselves with seventy-five diamonds in the presence of many witnesses, employing a number of iron bars and pieces of wire, manipulating them with the greatest care while they floated in water, supported by corks; yet never was it granted to me to see the effect mentioned by Porta.”


William gilbert 1544 16037
William Gilbert medicine. His (1544-1603)

De Magnete(1600)

“The Aristotelian element, earth, nowhere is seen, and the Peripatetics are misled by their vain dreams about the elements. … Aristotle's 'simple element,' and that most vain terrestrial phantasm of the Peripatetics, - formless, inert, cold, dry, simple matter, the substratum of all things, having no activity, - never appeared to any one even in dreams.”


William gilbert 1544 16038
William Gilbert medicine. His (1544-1603)

De Magnete(1600)

Two basic principles:

Sceptical empiricism: since nearly all established explanatory concepts were wrong, one had to reason from securely observed phenomena.

Principle of analogy: A model of the Earth, a "terrella" turned from natural loadstone, replicated all the magnetic phenomena of the Earth itself, such as the orientation of compass needles. He explicitly denied the Aristotelian doctrine that 'ars’ could not imitate nature.


William gilbert 1544 16039
William Gilbert medicine. His (1544-1603)

Terrela


Episteme vs techne3
episteme vs. medicine. Histechne

  • scientia(theoretical knowledge)ars(crafts)

Bringing techneinto the scholarly world