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Old Testament Names For God

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  1. Old TestamentNames For God There Is But One God

  2. Elohim “God”

  3. Elohim “God”His Power And Might (1) • Genesis 1:1 (NKJV) In the beginning God created the heavens and the earth • Psalm 19:1 (NKJV) The heavens declare the glory of God; And the firmament shows His handiwork • In the Bible the word for God in the Hebrew that is most often used is Elohim • It is a plural noun • The word for God in the singular sense is El which is used most often in describing Gods characteristics or attributes

  4. Elohim “God,”His Power And Might (2) • We find from the scriptures all the attributes of God belong to Elohim • They also belong to the three persons who are the Elohim • The word Elohim can also be used for one person of the godhead or all three since they all share in the commonality of that eternal essence of deity • Each person the Father, Son and Spirit are 100% deity so when they appear singularly there is no division of that deity since God is indivisible

  5. Elohim “God,”His Power And Might (3) • The same rule would be for the word God theos, in the New Testament • Such as in John 1:1 the word was with God and was God as sharing in the same essence • The name Elohim indicates that God is full of creating and governing power and who created all things by speaking His Word • This name of God is used 35 times in the account of creation (Genesis 1:1 – Genesis 2:4) and is the only word used to describe God in this passage • The very power of God’s Word brought all things into existence

  6. El-elyon

  7. El-elyon “The Most High God” (1) • Genesis 14:17-20 (NKJV) And the king of Sodom went out to meet him at the Valley of Shaveh (that [is], the King's Valley), after his return from the defeat of Chedorlaomer and the kings who [were] with him. • 18 Then Melchizedek king of Salem brought out bread and wine; he [was] the priest of God Most High. • 19 And he blessed him and said: "Blessed be Abram of God Most High, Possessor of heaven and earth; • 20 And blessed be God Most High, Who has delivered your enemies into your hand." And he gave him a tithe of all.

  8. El-elyon “The Most High God” (2) • Isaiah 14:13-14 (NKJV) For you have said in your heart: `I will ascend into heaven, I will exalt my throne above the stars of God; I will also sit on the mount of the congregation On the farthest sides of the north; • 14 I will ascend above the heights of the clouds, I will be like the Most High.'

  9. El-elyon “The Most High God” (3) • El Elyon: This compound name is formed from the word El, which means "God, god, mighty one, strength"  • It is used to denote "either the generic name 'god' or 'the God' of Israel"  • Elyon means "high, higher, highest, upper, upper-most"  • When associated with El it is usually considered a proper name of God and is capitalized • El Elyon is called the Possessor of heaven & earth (twice) • He is given credit for delivering Abram’s enemies into His hand • Abraham and Melchizedek are both identified with Him

  10. El-elyon “The Most High God” (4) • The Greek synonym for El Elyon appears in the following New Testament verses • Observe who identifies God as God Most High and the circumstances in which He is so called • What is revealed about God Most High in these verses? • What do they tell you about God’s nature or character?

  11. El-elyon “The Most High God” (5) • Mark 5:7 (Luke 8:28)  The Geresene demoniac identifies Jesus as the Son of the Most High God • Luke 1:32  The angel Gabriel prophesies that Jesus will be called the Son of the Most High • Luke 1:35  The angel Gabriel tells Mary that the power of the Most High will overshadow her  • overshadow  — “Used of the Holy Spirit exerting creative energy upon the womb of the virgin Mary and impregnating it • Acts 16:17-18  A demon-possessed slave girl identifies Paul and his companions as bondservants of the Most High God

  12. El-olam

  13. El-olam“The Everlasting God” (1) • Isaiah 40:28-31 (NKJV) Have you not known? Have you not heard? The everlasting God, the Lord, The Creator of the ends of the earth, Neither faints nor is weary. His understanding is unsearchable. • 29 He gives power to the weak, And to [those] [who] [have] no might He increases strength. • 30 Even the youths shall faint and be weary, And the young men shall utterly fall, • 31 But those who wait on the Lord Shall renew [their] strength; They shall mount up with wings like eagles, They shall run and not be weary, They shall walk and not faint.

  14. El-olam“The Everlasting God” (2) • The term "Olam" itself meant "secret" or "hidden" or "concealed" or "unknown" • From the idea of hiddenness developed the concept of eternity • Eichrodt has noted that the Name signifies: • "the permanence of the deity exalted over the changes and chances of time." • The idea of God's immutability is involved in the passages which speak of EL Olam

  15. El-olam“The Everlasting God” (3) • EL Olam cannot be dragged down into the flux of natural phenomena • This is in stark contrast to the nature deities of the surrounding pagan peoples • He is all that His people have from generation to generation. (Psalm 100:5) • Although times, needs and people all change, EL Olam never changes

  16. El-olam“The Everlasting God” (4) • He is always the same • While this aspect of God is revealed very early in the Old Testament • After the Exile there is an increasing emphasis upon His transcendence • Two characteristics are evident concerning EL Olam: • He is inexhaustible • There is no searching His understanding

  17. El-roi

  18. El-roi“The Strong One Who Sees” (1) • Genesis 16:13 (NKJV) Then she called the name of the Lord who spoke to her, You-Are-the-God-Who-Sees; for she said, "Have I also here seen Him who sees me?" • This title for God occurs only once from the lips of Hagar as she and her son are dying in the desert. • While this is the only occurrence of the actual name, the concept is found else where • Laban's lying and cheating had been seen by God (Genesis 31:10-12) • God saw the affliction of His people in Egypt • The name thus communicates omniscience

  19. El-roi“The Strong One Who Sees” (2) • What does El Roi watch over? • Jeremiah 1:12 - Jehovah assures Jeremiah..."I am watching over My Word to perform it." • Because El Roi watches over His Word, He is able to perform what He promises • If we truly appropriate this truth, there is nothing that can happen to us that we cannot be at absolute peace about

  20. El-roi“The Strong One Who Sees” (3) • How MUCH does El Roi SEE? • Proverbs :21 For the ways of a man are before the EYES of the LORD & He watches ALL his paths • There is no hiding from El Roi Who watches over you, seeing &  knowing all that happens • "He is able to come to the aid of those who are (being continuously) tempted (tested or tried)" (Hebrews 2:18)

  21. El-Shaddai

  22. El-Shaddai“God Almighty” (1) • Genesis 17:1 (NKJV) When Abram was ninety-nine years old, the Lord appeared to Abram and said to him, "I [am] Almighty God; walk before Me and be blameless • Psalm 91:1 (NKJV) He who dwells in the secret place of the Most High Shall abide under the shadow of the Almighty

  23. El-Shaddai“God Almighty” (2) • This self-revelation of God is characteristic of the patriarchal period • Exodus 6:2-3: And God said to Moses I am Yahweh. I appeared to Abraham, to Isaac and to Jacob as EL Shaddai" • This name for God stresses particularly His omnipotence as it is displayed in His immanence • Many trace the origin of the term "Shaddai" to the root word which refers to a mother's breast

  24. El-Shaddai“God Almighty” (3) • If this be correct the Name is one which suggests God's grace and His condescension to the level of His creatures to make Himself known and to give sustenance to them • It is a name which is associated with God's relationship with His children.

  25. Adonai, “Lord”

  26. Adonai, “Lord” The Lordship Of God (1) • Malachi 1:6 (NKJV) "A son honors [his] father, And a servant [his] master. If then I am the Father, Where [is] My honor? And if I [am] a Master, Where [is] My reverence? Says the Lord of hosts To you priests who despise My name. Yet you say, `In what way have we despised Your name?'

  27. Adonai, “Lord,” The Lordship Of God (2) • When used of men this title speaks of an intimate personal relationship, e.g. master-slave; husband-wife, thus connoting the idea of authority, love and faithfulness • When applied to God two factors stand out. • The master has a right to expect obedience • The slave may expect provision • This can be seen graphically in the life of Moses who was silenced of all objections to God's call when he recognized Him as Adonai (Exodus 4:10)

  28. Adonai, “Lord,” The Lordship Of God (3) • In so doing, he admitted his position as a slave and his obligation to obey his master • Also see Isaiah. 6:1- 8, Isaiah's response to the heavenly vision is "Here am I Adonai, send me" • The slave has no worry • It is the responsibility of the master to provide food, clothing and shelter for his slave • Since he is owned by the master, his needs become his master's needs

  29. Jehovah (Yahweh)

  30. Jehovah (Yahweh), “The Lord” God’s Eternal Nature (1) • Genesis 2:4 (NKJV) This [is] the history of the heavens and the earth when they were created, in the day that the Lord God made the earth and the heavens • God as the self-existent one

  31. Jehovah (Yahweh), “The Lord” God’s Eternal Nature (2) • This is the most common name for God in the Old Testament, occurring over 6800 times • In contrast to other names for deity on the Old Testament it is used ONLY of the god of Israel and never of the pagan deities • Interpretations of the Name • "I am the One who is" • "I am who I am" • "I will be what I will be" • "I cause to be what I cause to be"

  32. Jehovah (Yahweh), “The Lord” God’s Eternal Nature (3) • While the forward looking manifestation of Yahweh has in view the pledge of redemptive presence • The name Yahweh accumulates to itself all that the patriarchs had already known about God • The Hebrew verb `to be' had originally to do with absolute existence, not relative relationships • In our view, Yahweh is the revelation of the Eternal • The independent sovereign of all, who pledges in free grace to come to the redemptive rescue of his chosen people

  33. Jehovah (Yahweh), “The Lord” God’s Eternal Nature (4) • Yahweh, the self-existent, eternal, and unchanging "I am" is the God of grace who enters into covenant relations with His chosen people (Deuteronomy 5:2) • The glorious incommunicable name that the Jews superstitiously refused to pronounce (cf. Leviticus 24:16) is descriptive of none but the God of Israel • The Old Testament itself did not share this avoidance of the Name of God

  34. Jehovah (Yahweh), “The Lord” God’s Eternal Nature (5) • ". . . in post-Old Testament days Yahweh ceased to be pronounced aloud in the synagogue reading and was replaced orally (but not in writing) by Adhonai” • This exchange took place because of the superstitious reverence in which the scribes held the ineffable name of God • Since the name Yahweh occurs some 150 times in Genesis, one meets with initial surprise Yahweh's saying to Moses (Exodus 6:3) • "I appeared to Abraham, to Isaac and to Jacob as God Almighty (`EL Sadday'), but by my name the Lord (Yahweh) I did not make myself known to them."

  35. Jehovah (Yahweh), “The Lord” God’s Eternal Nature (6) • No contradiction in the Pentateuchal traditions need by posited • Rather Exodus 6:3 affirms that whereas God formerly had been addressed as Yahweh, only at Sinai was the full import of that "glorious name" (Deuteronomy 28:58) make known

  36. Jehovah (Yahweh), “The Lord” God’s Eternal Nature (7) • The name YHWH is one of covenant relationship • This is in contrast to ELOHIM which is a name which speaks of power and transcendence • "Yahweh is the God of covenant promise, of covenant revelation, whose active redemptive concern for his people is--is not merely a memory of past history, is not merely a future hope, but is" • "In the exodus revelation God `gave himself away' to Israel--within his freedom indeed, yet bound by covenant to historical redemptive deliverance"

  37. Jehovah-jireh “The Lord Will See To It”

  38. Jehovah-jireh “The Lord Will Provide” (1) • Genesis 22:13-14 (NKJV) Then Abraham lifted his eyes and looked, and there behind [him] [was] a ram caught in a thicket by its horns. So Abraham went and took the ram, and offered it up for a burnt offering instead of his son. • 14 And Abraham called the name of the place, The-Lord-Will-Provide; as it is said [to] this day, "In the Mount of The Lord it shall be provided." • As he climbed Mount Moriah with his son, Abraham was confident that God would meet every need

  39. Jehovah-jireh “The Lord Will Provide” (2) • Will provide, the name given by Abraham to the scene of his offering up the ram which was caught in the thicket on Mount Moriah • The expression used in Genesis 22:14 "in the mount of the Lord it shall be seen“ • The expression has been regarded as equivalent to the saying, "Man's extremity is God's opportunity"

  40. Jehovah-jireh “The Lord Will Provide” (3) • Abraham could depend on the promise and provision of the Lord • He had already experienced the resurrection power of God in his own body (Romans 4:19-21), so he knew that God could raise Isaac from the dead if that was His plan. • Apparently no resurrections had taken place before that time, so Abraham was exercising great faith in God" • God did provide the sacrifice that was needed, and a ram took Isaac’s place on the altar (Genesis 22:13) • Abraham discovered a new name for God—“Jehovah-jireh”—which can be translated “The Lord will see to it” or “The Lord will be seen.” • The statement “In the mount of the Lord it shall be seen” helps us understand some truths about the provision of the Lord.

  41. Jehovah-jireh “The Lord Will Provide” (4) • Where does the Lord provide our needs? In the place of His assignment • Abraham was at the right place, so God could meet his needs. We have no right to expect the provision of God if we are not in the will of God • When does God meet our needs? • Just when we have the need and not a minute before • When you bring your requests to the throne of grace, God answers with mercy and grace “in time of need” (Hebrews 4:16) • Sometimes it looks like God waits until the last minute to send help, but that is only from our human point of view. God is never late

  42. Jehovah-jireh “The Lord Will Provide” (5) • How does God provide for us? • In ways that are usually quite natural • God did not send an angel with a sacrifice; He simply allowed a ram to get caught in a bush at a time when Abraham needed it and in a place where Abraham could get his hands on it • All Abraham needed was one animal, so God did not send a whole flock of sheep

  43. Jehovah-jireh “The Lord Will Provide” (6) • To whom does God give His provision? • To those who trust Him and obey His instructions • When we are doing the will of God, we have the right to expect the provision of God • “When God’s work is done in God’s way, it will not lack God’s support” • God is not obligated to bless my ideas or projects, but He is obligated to support His work if it is done in His way

  44. Jehovah-jireh “The Lord Will Provide” (7) • Why does God provide our every need? • For the great glory of His name! “Hallowed be Thy name” is the first petition in the Lord’s Prayer (Matthew 6:9-13), and it governs all the other requests • God was glorified on Mount Moriah because Abraham and Isaac did the will of the Lord and glorified Jesus Christ • We must pause to consider this important truth

  45. Jehovah-maccaddeshem Lord Who Sanctifies You

  46. Jehovah-maccaddeshem “The Lord Your Sanctifier” (1) • Exodus 31:13 (NKJV) "Speak also to the children of Israel, saying: `Surely My Sabbaths you shall keep, for it [is] a sign between Me and you throughout your generations, that [you] may know that I [am] the Lord who sanctifies you. • You Anoint My Head With Oil: Leviticus 20:8 • I am Jehovah Maccaddeshem, the Lord who sanctifies you.My child, you are my anointed one. I have set you aside as my own. You are sanctified and holy... fit for my use. The oil signifies the 'Holy Spirit' which I have given you

  47. Jehovah-maccaddeshem “The Lord Your Sanctifier” (2) • What is God's will for His saints according to 1 Thessalonians 4:3? • “For this is the will of God, your sanctification: that you should abstain from sexual immorality” • Will of God = sanctification (your holiness) • What is our part in fulfilling the will of God? • Abstain from sexual immorality

  48. Jehovah-nissi Fighting The Good Fight Of Faith

  49. Jehovah-nissi “The Lord Our Banner” (1) • Exodus 17:15 (NKJV) And Moses built an altar and called its name, The-Lord-Is-My-Banner • We must fight the good fight of faith but the victory belongs to the LORD • 1 Samuel 14:6; 17:47 • 2 Chronicles 20:15-17 • Psalm 46:11 • Zechariah 4:6 • Proverbs 21:31 • Romans 8:31 & 37

  50. Jehovah-nissi “The Lord Our Banner” (2) • In the Bible, the name Moses gave to the altar commemorating the victory over the Amalekites • It happened at the time when Israel was wandering in the wilderness after miraculously crossing the Red Sea • Amalek was the enemy who came against Israel in Rephidim (Exodus 17:8-16) • Moses called on his young apprentice, Joshua, to lead the Israelites into battle while he stationed himself on top of a hill to pray • He had with him his brother Aaron and his assistant, Hur • As Moses lifted his hands and prayed, the Israelites prevailed in the battle but when he let his hands down, Amalek prevailed • So Aaron and Hur set Moses on a rock and held his hands up for him until the battle was totally won