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Theme. Agriculture. Agricultural Systems. The Sahel. Southern California. San Francisco. San Diego. http://www.ibe.unesco.org/ The Sahel Burkina Faso Cameroon Chad Gambia Mali Mauritania Niger Nigeria Senegal Sudan. Source: www.pbs.org.

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theme

Theme

Agriculture

agricultural systems
Agricultural Systems
  • The Sahel
  • Southern California

San Francisco

San Diego

slide3

http://www.ibe.unesco.org/

The Sahel

Burkina Faso

Cameroon

Chad

Gambia

Mali

Mauritania

Niger

Nigeria

Senegal

Sudan

Source: www.pbs.org

slide4

The Sahel -- Encyclopedia Britannica

Arabic Sa hil, semiarid region of western and north-central Africa extending from Senegal eastward to The Sudan. It forms a transitional zone between the arid Sahara (desert) to the north and the belt of humid savannas to the south.

slide5

Cape Verde, Gambia, Guinea Bissau, Senegal, Mauritania, Mali, Burkina Faso, Niger, Chad

Source: www.fao.org

slide6

Less developed

More developed

Nomadic herding

Irrigation farming

Self subsistence farming

Commercial farming

Well-known food exporter

Famine

Similar physical inputs

physical inputs
Physical inputs
  • Dry climates
  • High solar energy
  • Low rainfall 200-600mm
  • Infertile soil
  • Drought
cultural inputs
Cultural inputs

Technology Low High

Governance Poor Efficient

Market Small + Local Large + Overseas

technology
Technology

Simple, low cost, manual

Advanced, high cost, mechanical

Dig wells

Build dams, canals, reservoirs, drainage systems

Plant tree

Satellite

Eco-friendly fertilizers

Chemical fertilizers

outcome
Outcome

Depends on international aids

Gain more than US$2 billion a year

technology1
Technology

Overgrazing

Increasing arable land

Overcultivation

Large scale construction

Deforestation

Loss of natural habitats

 Desertification

 Pollution

Sustainable agriculture

technology2
Advantages

 productivity

 quality

 variety

 health

 production cost

Disadvantages

 pollution

 habitats

 biodiversity

deforestation

desertification

 ecosystem

Technology

 Livelihood + Economy 