Respiratory System. Exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide between the blood and the muscle tissues Exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide between the lungs and blood The breathing of air into and out of the lungs. Mechanics of Breathing. Inspiration:
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Exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide between the blood and the muscle tissues
Exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide between the lungs and blood
The breathing of air into and out of the lungs
Gaseous Exchange – the process of exchanging O2 and CO2
Partial Pressure - the pressure a gas exerts in a mixture of gases
Diffusion - The movement of gases from areas of higher partial pressure to lower partial pressure
Diffusion Gradient - The difference between high and low pressure of gases. The bigger the gradient the greater the diffusion.
Involves the movement of oxygen and carbon dioxide between the alveoli of the lungs and capillaries surrounding the alveoli.
The aim of external respiration is to oxygenate the blood returning from the tissues
As blood circulates through the capillaries surrounding the alveoli oxygen is picked up and carbon dioxide is dropped off to be expired
Involves the movement of O2 and CO2 between the capillaries surrounding the muscles and the muscle tissues
The aim of internal respiration is to oxygenate the muscles and collect CO2 to return it to the alveoli
These processes can only happen if a diffusion gradient is present.
Shows us how much haemoglobin is saturated with oxygen
Saturated – when haemoglobin is loaded with oxygen
Dissociation – where oxygen is unloaded from the haemoglobin
The higher the partial pressure of oxygen, the higher percentage of oxygen saturation to haemoglobin
All four of these factors (which occur during exercise) increases the dissociation of oxygen from haemoglobin, which increases the supply of oxygen to the working muscles and therefore delays fatigue.
Reduction in breathing rate during sub-maximal exercise,
System is more efficient therefore less
No changes in lung volumes except. . . .
Vital capacity – amount of air that can be forcibly expired after maximal inspiration – increases slightly, largely due to stronger respiratory muscles
Therefore spirometer traces are not good predictors of training or fitness because lung size/volume do not determine fitness (these are largely genetic and not adapted due to training)
Increase in CO2, increase in acidity
Detected by chemoreceptors
Movement of muscles and joints
Detected by proprioreceptors
Also stretch receptors in lungs, temperature receptors detect changes
Messages sent to the medulla (respiratory control centre)
Messages to send respiratory muscles via sympathetic nervous system.
What is the Oxygen-Haemoglobin Disassociation Curve?
What happens to the curve during exercise?
What causes this to happen?
What are the effects of the curve shifting to the right?
What changes occur to the respiratory system as a result of training?
Training will usually result in little or no change in pulmonary function. However, swimmers may experience some increase in vital capacity and maximal breathing capacity (breathing against resistance of the water)
Comparison of marathon runners and sedentary subjects showed no difference in actual lung functions (FEV1, etc)