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Lecture 2. 语音学
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Lecture 2. 语音学

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  1. Lecture 2. 语音学 • 语音学:语音性质、语音现象、语音规律 • Phonetics 语音学 studies physical property of speech sounds in general • How they are produced (articulatory phonetics) and perceived(acoustic phonetics) • Phonology音位学studies the specific sounds as employed in different language(systematical use of sounds in language with linguistic functions). • How these sounds are arranged to form meaning units and what function each sound performs in the sound system of the language.

  2. Contrastive Phonetics: • something in common for CS 1) to pronounce involve the same physical and physiological property; • 2) to make economy in communication, 弱化,同化,连缀,省音 : books, dogs, looked, obliged • 英语的读音规则性不强 • 英语字母不是一个字母只表一个音素音,多数字母在不同的语言环境中读不同的音。有些字母要读几个音,有的不发音: • a: map, father, all, about, date, many • o: hot, action, go g: go, gene • c: cook, cease w: who, would, wrong • ei: sleigh, sleight k: knife, kitten • t: bristle ,brittle I: sign, signature, minute, minute

  3. ou: though, thought, thorough, through, cough, bough,, brought • s: island, Islam, isinglass, • About 1500, the Great Vowel Shift • 长元音短原因变化,/e:/--/i:/--/ai/,/a:/--/ei/,/o:/--/u:/ • 打破元音在词中不变的情况,引发vowel alternations • divine, divinity • mad—made, strip---stripe, wis—wise, lov--love • William, printing technology, 1476 • oneley, onely, onley, only • Samul John English Dictionary, 1755 • meet---meat/meet, see---sea/see downhil---downhill,

  4. 希腊语 拉丁语 本族文 偌曼底 • one unus an ein • dyo dua twa zwen t/d/z • treis tres thrie dri t/th/d • tettares quattuor feower fior f/q • pente quinque fif funf • hex sex siex sehs h/s • hepta septem seofon sibun h/s • okto octo eahta ahto • ennea novem nigon niun • deka decem tien zehan c/t/d/z

  5. publik—public, skold--scold • hee—he, on—one, greef—grief, thease---these, • swoord---sword, noorse---nurse, • cap=seize captive, deceptive • sed=sit sediment, president • spec=look, see spectacle, conspicuous • Two questions: • What’s the significance of the technology of printing and computers? • Why is the archives more emphasized in China than museums which are highly developed in the West ?

  6. A phone(音素) is a phonetic unit. All these sounds /i:/,/t’/,/t/,/s/。语音片段。 • pu tong hua 8个因素,是构成音节的基本单位。 • A phoneme(音位) is a phonological unit that is of distinctive value. But it is an abstract unit. It is meaningful, or functional. • /p//b/ in bad, pad, • pao抛/bao包, tao套/dao到 ,kao考/gao搞 • A minimal pair(最小对立体)/ki:p//kip/ think/sink, man/men • Phone and phoneme • the phoneme /p/ in /pi:k/(voiceless stop),/spi:k/(voiced stop)./t/ top,stop, cotton

  7. Allophones(音位变体): • the phones representing a phoneme, but don’t make a new word, or create a new meaning. • pao/bao送气。但英语中speak • dark /l/ or clear/l/ in the context leap,loaf/peel,tell,quilt, aspirated/p/or unaspirated/p/ in the context after /s/ and before vowels are allophones of the phonemes/l/,/p/

  8. Function loads • relative importance of a speech sound in a language), • 清/浊the phonemes voice(voice/voiceless)in pb,td, kg, fv, sz, tsdz • pig/big, class/glass, ferry/very. • 送气/不送气the phoneme Aspiration(aspirated and unaspirated)in stop /speak. key/ski • in Chinese the phonemes送气/不送气,such as pb,td,kg,qj, zc, zh-chcan be functional: • ke/ge科哥; pa-ba怕吧; ti-di替敌,kong-gong空工, qi-ji起鸡, chi-zhi吃指,ti-di提堤 • buzi---puzi步子/铺子, tongshi-dongshi同事/董事, tuzi-duzi兔子/肚子, ketou-getou磕头/格斗,peitao-beitao配套/被套 ,tushu----dushu图书/读书, qipi---jipi漆皮/鸡皮, daitou---taidou泰斗/带头, chizhu----zhizhu吃住/支柱

  9. Segmental phonemes ( vowel and consonants) • English has about 47 phonemes音位, with 20 vowels and 27 consonants. • Chinese has 10 vowels and 22 consonants. Together 32 phonemes. • 按声母(音节开头部分,21个)p,t, h, m,c, zh, ch, sh, r, f, h, x, sh, s, • 韵母(音节声母后部分,39个) • 单元音:a, o, e, e, i,u,u, • 复元音:ai, ei, ao, ou, ai, ie, ua, uo, ue, iao, iou, uai, an, en, in, ain, uan, uen, ang, eng, ing, ong, iang, uang, ueng, iong, • 声韵母组合:jiao huai xue sheng bing bu rong yi,

  10. Tone & intonation. • Tone language字/声调 vs. intonation language语调. • tone language • yi衣移椅义 • jia家夹假价 • ma妈麻马骂 • mai 买卖埋, • jiao 交胶郊娇 • tan zhi毯子瘫子坛子探子 • shi ye 失业实业始业事业

  11. It can not only distinguish meaning, but part of speech. ban扳/板, kong空/控 • ding钉,shu数,liang量, zhong种,dan担 • But English only has intonation, The difference is tone to words, and intonation to sentences, the former is compulsory and can be functional, but the latter is optional and affect no meaning , only the emotion or attitude. • Good afternoon • Certainly • How do you do • Thank you • Beautiful weather

  12. 1.      fall in pitch, • 2.      rise in pitch, • 3. slight rise in pitch, • 4. fall in pitch followed be a rise, • 5. rise in pitch followed by a fall. • But some say there are 11 patterns • That’s not the book he wants. (fact, information seeking) • She doesn't speak to anybody\(she speaks to no one) • She doesn't speak to anybody/(She speaks only to some people.) • Question: • Why do Chinese students can’t speak like native speakers?

  13. 5extra high, 4 high, 3mid, 2 low, 1 extra low • 高升调、低升调、高降调、低降调、高降升调 • 低降升调、高升降调、低升降调、高平调、低平调。汉语调值:平调55 、升调35 、曲折调214 、降调51 (54321---高中低) • 5 • 4 • 3 • 2 • 1

  14. 阴平(第一声)55 高平 • 阳平(第二声)35 高升 • 上声(第三声)214 低降升 • 去声(第四声)51 高降 Problems: 调幅不大 • 英语调值:低降31、高降41、低升13 、高升24、降升413、升降241、中平3。11 patterns • 平调55---中平33(exited)低平11 • 升调35---低升13 、高升24 • 曲折调214---降升413、升降241, 升降升3513 • 降调51-----低降31、高降41

  15. 1. the intonation is quite flat,. • That thing is bad, this thing is good. • 那个东西(rising tone)坏,那个东西(falling tone)好 • He likes singing, but you love playing. • 他爱 唱(rising tone),你爱 玩(falling tone) 。 • 2.tend to read in high level tone. • 3. Tend to end a sentence with falling tone. • Two syllable words tend to end with 上声、去声。

  16. But English, not only has far more syllables, but words contains more than two syllables • a. mono-syllable: we, see, you,come,go • b.di-syllable:country, affair, inside, bedtime. • c.three-syllable: liberty, condition, telephone,magazine • d.four-syllable:population,comfortable,unfortunate • e.five-syllable:consideration,satisfactory, interdependence • f.six-syllable:inferiority, indistinguishable, personification

  17. To reduce the ambiguity in communication created by homonyms, one way is to adopt 方块字。 • 补偿音节不足,用声调。 • Chinese has tone(声调) • Chinese has about 1300 syllables, • English has about 10000 syllables • English has stress(重音)如abstract摘要, abstract提炼。So few homonyms • son-sun, sea-see, week-weak, bare-bear, rain-reign, faint-feint, flea-flee, not-knot, tail-tale, sight-site, steal-steel, fir-fur, tail-tale, week-weak, waist-waste, right-rite, I-eye, hear-here, male-mail, piece-peace, air-heir, rain-reign, • 英语词没有声调。英语以音节的轻重和元音的长短来区别意义的。如hit/heat, shot/short, minute/minute, refuse/refuse, abstract/abstract

  18. 音节构成: • A Chinese syllable is composed of a vowel and one or tow consonants. A consonant is followed by a vowel( p-o坡, b-o玻, m-o磨, f-o佛, d-e得, t-e特, l-e勒, g-e格,k-e克, h-e喝, j-I机, q-I其, x-I西).it can have no C, but must have a V.啊、鹅、袄、偶。 • nu li ying zao gui fan de yu yan wen zi huan jing

  19. Chinese syllable 1)At least has one vowel, and has four phones at most. 2) There is no consonant group such as /sk/,/fl/ 3) Vowel is dominant: there is vowel group and most syllable end with a vowel 4) Chinese has about 1300 syllables English syllable 1) At least one vowel and has 8 phones at most 2)The way to combine phones are quite free, and there are more types of syllables. 3) Consonant is dominant: a consonant can combine with other Cs to form consonant group.

  20. 23Cs can begin a syllable except /ng/: s- has 6types, -w 7types, -r 9types,.21 syllables with consonants as the end • 4) English has about 10000 syllables,.

  21. Consonant clusters (group) • ,vccc:asks, cvccc:next, ccvccc:prompt, ccvcccc:glimpsed, cccvccc: strength, cccvcccc:scrambles. must, tempt, texts, thousands. • CC(s+p,t,k,f,m,n,l,j.w ): spit, smell, suit • CCC(s+p.t.k+l.r.w.j ): splash, square, strike • -CC (bank, stand ) • -CCC(jumped, banks,ninths, grasped), • -CCCC(twelfth, prompts, sixths, thousandths) • Problem: /k -'lin/ please /p-li;s/: /g -la:s/, next /nek-st/, between the consonants there is a vowel inserted. • Chinese cant end with C except[n], so add: • That_, bed_, book_

  22. Stress word stress • 1)(no) correspondence between the numbers of characters and syllables : magazine, 杂志 • 2)the location of stress is free/fixed (Chinese, French, English) • 3) a word has one stressed syllable/more stressed syllables • 4)stressed syllable is functional and nonfunctional Among 2115 words which is frequently used, 1066 words are two syllable words or above. And among them 66.3% the stress falls on the first syllables.

  23. E C • PW enter/river/table PW 石头/聪明/葡萄/半斤 • WP below/report/support • PS bedtime/window • SP Chinese/idea/thirteen SP老陈/喝茶/看戏/语言 • PWW family/hospital • WPW eleven, important • PWS telephone/beautify • SWP refuge/interfere SWP糊涂虫/爆米化 • SPW uncertain/re-enter SPW老头子/补鞋的 • WPS potato/tomorrow • SSP周恩来/哈尔滨

  24. E C • WPWW impossible/intelligence • PWSW educated/helicopter • SWPW universal/insufficient • PWWW criticism/relatively • WPWS participate/articulate • PWWS capitalize/regularize • SWWP overfulfil/misunderstand • SPWW unfortunate/postgraduate • SWSP清清楚楚/为所欲为 • SPSP北京大学/惊天动地 • SWPWW satisfactory • PWSWPW indiscrimination

  25. one stressed syllable VS. more stressed syllables: • philanthropist, particularize, uncharitableness, • centralization, administration • 人类学,共产主义,巧克力. • below, billow • im ’port v.----‘import n. in’crease v-----‘increase n., in’sult v.----‘insult n. conflict, contest, progress. • ‘refuse n.垃圾---refuse v. abstract, present • ‘commune n公社.---com’mune谈心 ‘minute(分钟)----mi’nute(精细), ‘desert n.沙漠----de’sert n.功过, ’undertaker(殡仪员)----under’taker(承办人)

  26. greenhouse/green’house • a ‘blackbird----- / a black ‘bird • ‘glasscase(眼镜盒)--- glass’case玻璃盒, • ’English teacher(英语教师)----English "teacher(英籍教师) • short ‘hand(钟表的时针)-----shorthand( 速记) • tall ‘boy---tallboy( 高脚柜) • four ‘ways----fourways(交叉路口) • ‘steel con’tainer(钢制容器)------‘steel container(盛钢的容器) • ‘plastic ‘bag(塑料袋)----‘plastic factory(塑料制品厂) • ‘metal ‘box----‘metal company(金属制造公司) • ‘fish ‘pie----‘fish shop • They are ‘cooking apples----someone are cooking apples • They are cooking ‘apples---They are apples for cooking. • .

  27. But stress in Chinese is not functional, nearly every word is stressed, because of the tone, weak form is impossible. according to the habit. 文化, 爸爸 ,葡萄,聪明 • 助词 (了、的、吗),词尾(子、儿、们),方位词(中、里,上) • unstressed form in the second syllable, may be functional: • 大意(主要意思)/大.意(疏忽), 下场(退场)/下.场(结局), • 地方(中央)/地方(空间),运气(气功)/运气(好运) • 实在(不虚假)/实在(扎实) • 照应(配合)/照.应(照料)反正(投诚)/反正(态度) • 东西(方向/东.西(things), 自然(自然界)/自然(态度) • 夫妻/夫.妻(夫妇) ,运气(气功/时运),开发(开拓/支付),对头(正确)/对头(仇人) • 管家(管理家务)管.家(仆人) • But only 3.2% sylllables

  28. To identify the stressed syllable. • host-ess, dish-es, , match-es, read-ing, larg-er, use-ful, a-sleep ,en-slave, mis-lead, ill-natured • In Chinese,most are S stress, W stress 3.2%in 1332 stresses. • 子---旗子,桌子 头---苦头,甜头。们----我们,他们,的---新鲜的, 先进的,地---迅速地,努力地。 • One character one stress, each read aloud and clearly with nearly equal time. One reason is tone, another is that nearly 14000 words in 20000 two-syllable words have the stress on the last syllable(徐世荣,1982),冯隆(1985)the second syllable pronounced time118ms, while the first 104ms, 13% shorter. But most two-syllable English nouns and adj. with the first stressed syllable. Tajima(1997) ‘s experiment. Chinese students pronounce “market””briefest””mountain”, the first syllable lasts 13ms longer than the second, even equal, but the native speakers it is 90ms longer.one way is to pronounce vowels fully,

  29. syllable-timed language and • stress-timed language • Foot-timing. One foot is composed of at least two stresses. One is weak, another strong. It is called binary branching • foot foot • S W W S • Different types of footing. • sw, sww, swww, wsww, swwpw • Each foot has equal time to pronounce it whether the foot has two or three or five syllables.That is, the stressed syllable pronounced aloud, and weak syllables quickly. That is the quality of vowels is affected by stress • Famous----infamous, potent----impotent • Ignore----ignorant, story---history, refer---reference • National----nationality conscious-----control

  30. /Not /everybody is in the /shop / /evribdizi,n/ • ./She ‘said /‘nothing /when I ‘asked her/ if she is ‘going • On ‘that oc’casion there was ‘noting to be ‘done. • This is the ‘ house that ‘Jack ‘built • The man’s here/The manager’s here • Break, break, break,(3 syllables) • On the cold grey stones, O sea(7syllables) • I think he wants to go(6 syllables) • I think it was an excellentaffair. (10 syllables) • Ted has been to the hotelrecently. ( 10 syllables ) • The ‘boy is ‘interested in en’larging his vo’cabulary.(16syllables) • ’Great ‘progress is ‘made ‘daily. (7syllable) • .

  31. 这个男孩很想扩大他的词汇量./每天进步很大. • 野火烧不尽/春风吹又生 • 平仄音节 • 白日依山尽,黄河入海流, • 欲穷千里目,更上一层楼。 • 公共汽车:字正腔圆,铿锵有力,吐字清楚