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## PowerPoint Slideshow about 'Universe is Otherwise #2 The Spectrum of Existence' - azriel

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### Universe is Otherwise #2The Spectrum of Existence

Paul Schroeder

Disconnect With Special Relativity - SRT

- Physicists still debate the validity of special relativity. SRT gained stature because it overrode difficulties with the aethers. This work provides the real solution using a pushing gravity medium.
- Perspectives are limited to rectilinear (inertial) frames of reference within SRT.
- SRT ignores non-linear travel and the claim of either action or observer at rest interchangeably fails for rotating observers.
- My ideas modify classical Newtonian physics and not relativity which I consider somewhat mystic.
- SRT incorrectly limits light speed across the universe since gravity slows and accelerates light..

Paep Gravity

- Paep streams are involved with light, mass and forces in solving puzzles beyond just gravity issues. What follows will address:
- Energy
- Magnetism
- Nuclear interactions
- Transmission
- Atomic structure

What is Energy?

- Energy is contained within mass per Einstein’s E=mc^2 formula. A paep has none of what we call energy. I contend that spin defines mass, the density of mass, and also the energy contained within that mass. Energy is local activity, and the essence of a local activity is motion. In order to remain local, that motion must be rotation in place, or spin.

MC^2=E

- Obtaining energy from mass involves releasing some spin. Nuclear reactors and bombs represent this activity. They follow the logic of Einstein’s mass to energy conversion.
- The mass—energy conversion works in reverse as energy conversion to mass. We will be exploring the relation of energy to mass.

Overview of Mass Creation

- I’ve suggested that bent paep streams create mass. Starting with neither spin nor electric charge and ending up with an atom, it would appear as though something has fractured empty space at the point of this new existence. For a preliminary view, within turbulence, bent paep streams encounter other paeps, in the process instigating offsetting local spins.

Orbital Spin Around Nuclei

- The spins of electrons or electron fields must be relative to something. In atoms revolution is identified as relative to the nucleus area.
- In spatial turbulence, as bent paep streams in space stir up more disturbance, the spin becomes greater. The existence of any form of revolution center is enough to call it a nucleus.

Trojan Asteroids

- There are points called Lagrangian points L4 and L5 within Jupiter’s orbit which orbit the sun with Jupiter but are 60 degrees ahead and behind Jupiter. The points contain hundreds of asteroids for which formation theories focus on capture.
- In reality those points have the highest curvature paep streams from two directions intersecting, and give the optimum mass ‘creation’ conditions within the solar system.

Forming Atoms

- In space, the initial spin turbulence may form the lightest element of mass, a hydrogen atom. As more spin is added, the atom becomes a heavier and denser element. This progression continues throughout the periodic table of elements. The topic becomes complicated when one considers whether the added spin forms adjacent atoms or extra spin within a single atom.
- Before continuing mass creation and structure, we discuss light and radiation frequencies.

Solar Emissions

- Light is formed when gravity particles initiate interactions with mass particles. Gravity beams gain increased frequency. Heavenly bodies such as our sun convert gravity and create and release light and heat. Nothing is really burned up or used up even by particle conversion within a sun. Its output is simply a converted form of the gravity paeps entering it on the opposite side.
- Light and radiation lead to mass formation.

Light

- Elsewhere I explain how beams of light are continually red shifted throughout their passage across the universe so that, at some distance, the shift exceeds the visible red range. The waves become infrared, microwaves, or radio waves. Appropriately, an isotropic microwave background is observed signifying an approximate distance from which all light from very distant sources is shifted beyond the visible.
- This background has been given a whole existence of its own and is called black body radiation. Due to science’s backward perspectives about the source, this background radiation gives the false impression of a boundary to the universe.

Olber

- In 1826, Olber proposed a paradox in which the night sky should be solid light from an infinite number of stars. He was in fact correct, however the light has been red shifted to become microwaves. The cosmic background radiation is Olber’s starlight ablaze allover.

EM Energy

- Transverse waves are those that have amplitude, an up and down component of the wave as it travels forward. The more perpendicular amplitude a wave has the more it arrives as a line rather than as a point. Arrival impact thus covers more ground and in less time. There is greater potential total impact, thus more potential energy, contained in the transmission of these high frequency waves.
- We will analyze the forces after which we can try converting radiation to mass.

Weak Gravity, Strong Nuclear?

- The force of gravity is said to be long range and weak. Nuclear force is short range and very strong. This is a very misleading distinction. The ‘attraction’ force of gravity is linear while the nuclear force is an accumulation of simultaneous action from all 3 dimensional directions. The nuclear force is 10^39 times the gravitational force. That should give the measure of a paep beam and mean that, if we add up the pressures, that 10^39 beams strike a sphere. These are the beams directed straight at the center.

Center of Mass

- Imagine a nucleus at the center of earth. That point will serve as the X Y coordinate axis center. We draw a circle of radius 1 around that origin point to represent earth’s surface, say at the equator. Now draw 8 arrows, one from each direction toward the origin. If these are pushing forces they apply almost the same amount of force at the surface as at the center. Likewise if we put more arrows at all 360 degrees of the circle aimed at the origin, the surface and origin will be subject to the same amount of pressure (excluding any paep conversion).

The Sum of Gravity

- A nucleus radius is about 10^-14 m. Earth’s radius is 6378,000 m, or 6x10^20 times as big. Earth’s surface, which receives gravity throughout, is 4pi x 6x10^20^2 or about 500x10^40 as big as a nucleus. Dividing this by earth’s gravity of 9.8 m/sec gives a sum of forces pushing on earth’s surface which slightly exceeds the force of 10^39 at the nucleus. Gravity and nuclear measure alike.

Nuclear Force

- Paep pressure is distributed at the surface but concentrated at the center. Depending on particle size and paep beam size, gravity would measure nearly infinitely more at a nucleus than at the surface. Thus concentrated gravity pressure exceeds disbursed pressure. When focused 3 dimensionally, the force of paeps is the nuclear force. The concentration focus shown at earth’s center happens everywhere, creating nuclei.
- Recognizing the lateral potential of external gravitation explains cosmological forces which dominate physics.

Gravity vs Electric Force

- The electric force F=kqQ/R^2 is written to make it appear linear like the gravitational force F=GMm/R^2. Charge is a virtual concept assigned to protons and electrons. From that protons are incorrectly designated as round particles and their spin is redefined as charge.
- The force k, which works on charge is 10^20 times G. This might correlate with the nuclear calculation if we assume charge is 2 dimensional.

The Weak Force:

- The weak force serves as the basis for decay of elements. In general, the higher the atomic number of an element, the greater the number of electrons orbiting the nucleus. For larger atoms, it becomes increasingly likely for an electron to be impacted directly by oncoming paep beams. We will see how paep removal of an electron automatically reduces the number of protons and restructuring of the electron shells varies the number of neutrons.

Probability

- Decay is the gradual decrease in nucleus size which is subject to the probability of paep impact with tiny mass particles. The event takes place over time based on the probability of contact relative to the number of paeps passing through. Einstein says ‘God doesn’t play dice’, but, given the number of paep streams, its because he doesn’t have enough dice to play with.

Magnetism:

- Gravity is currently considered an attraction and performs action at a distance. The other example of such behavior is magnetism. Since I am proposing we think in terms of pushing gravity, we need to convert magnetic attraction to a net pushing force also to explain electromagnetism? Magnetic attraction becomes the redirecting by magnets of certain paeps that impact metals. The magnetic force becomes directionally unbalanced pushes rather than an attraction.

E/M Push

- It is said that free electrons are what create magnetism in metals such as iron, nickel and cobalt. In electromagnetism, a current must move these free electrons as well as properly orient their spins. Electrons in linear motion most effectively disturb paep flows.
- The disturbance is a redirecting of paeps at 90 degree right angles to the electric current. This obeys the right hand rule. Then the excess of paeps now in one direction creates the net pull and push of magnetism.

Magnetic Field

- To picture this draw a circle to represent a cross section of wire. A current is passing up through that circle. Then draw a paep beam aimed at the circle. Just before paeps get to the circle, have some of them divert at right angles counterclockwise. Aiming more beams surrounding the cross section circle roughly diverts a circle of one directional paeps causing a magnetic field. As the current is flowing up out of the page, using the right hand rule, the fingers point out the flow of this magnetism.

Magnetic Flow

- A number of coils of wire wrapped around a tube is an electromagnet. The redirected paeps outside the tube must travel to the end of the tube before wrapping around. Inside the tube paeps are redirected by electrons and remain concentrated within the tube. So the inside of the tube has directed magnetism moving linearly. Additionally paeps bending around the tube end all coming in one direction through the tube center add to the magnetism flow.

Attracting Nails.

- A nail placed above the diagram will be pushed upward by excess paeps while a nail below will experience a net push up due to a shortage of downward push.
- Note that the diverted paeps inside the tube are focused into a line from all directions while the pareps diverted on the outside have a barrier on only one side and thus flow as a field.

Waves and Spin

- Spin is an extension of the wave structure of radiation. Waves can simulate the appearance of spin to an observer. The angle of view matters. Wave radiation may appear as matter. As an example of how spin and waves are related , consider a point on a bicycle tire to be a particle. As the bike rolls forward on a surface, the tire spins but the point traces out a pattern like a repeating lowercase “m.”
- Eliminate the surface and move the axis forward. The faster the linear motion relative to the spin, the less distinguishable the pattern is from a sinusoid. The more extreme example suggests that a particle spinning at some rate while traveling quickly emulates a wave.

High Frequency

- Beyond visible light the higher frequencies of radiation are classified as ultraviolet, x-rays, and gamma rays.
- The closer together the transverse lines are, the greater the frequency. Frequency is usually measured versus time, as in per second
- A continuous straight line transmission of radiation would not arrive with any impact we call energy, and would not be classified as mass in any sense. It is the amplitude within transverse waves that provides impact. The repeating amplitude of the waves is motion perpendicular to the direction the beam travels, and is the source which produces the impact of mass energy upon arrival.

Radiation Mechanics

- Gravity and brightness diminish as they radiate from their source. If the source consisted of digital particles, the distant observer would see/feel fewer of the pixels separated by void regions. But we regard brightness to be of dimmer yet span full range analog output. To achieve continuity at a distance for radiated photons, they must move in a manner to continuously fill the ever increasing space that separates them from their adjacent beams. The available space expands like a spiral as the beam departs the sun. For limited distances the interior space occupied by the beam can be regarded as a cylinder.

Cylinder

- We usually view transverse waves as two dimensional curves tracing out peaks and valleys while they travel. Within the cylinder form, the same perspective will hold when viewed from every direction, giving 360 degrees of amplitude. Assume a point on the wave is tracing around the inside wall of the cylinder as the point moves forward toward its destination.

E=Hf

- We can label some point on the repeating wave to represent a particle, lets call it a paep. It is the number of waves arriving over time that give the frequency in E=hF.
- The higher the frequency the closer together the paep coils are. They are unimaginably close but usually never touch.

Bending the Radiation

- For high frequency we can picture the radiation coils in a cylinder to be like a somewhat rigid spring whose center is moving at speed C. The coil wires are also in constant motion like electrons in copper wire. The wire beam proceeds ahead.
- If you bend both ends of a spring toward yourself, the coil separations widen opposite you, and to the extent the wires separate opposite, the nearby coils come together and ultimately can overlap and make contact. The loops from one coil may even partly bend in back of the subsequent coil.

We Have Contact

- The flow of coils continues but the contact point remains at the bend point. The coils of radiation flow through the point but the interconnect that signals the existence of mass remains in place.
- The coils represent electron clouds cycling through the stationary point and continuing forward.

From Loops to Mass

- In three dimensions the overlaps can be in contact or not. If not in contact, the whole series is a line of radiation and remains a beam. If there is contact then adjacent loops participate together some way as mass.
- Bending of radiation creates contacts and ties radiation to mass. Sufficient bending is infrequent in the void of space but more frequent as radiation interacts with already existing mass. The intersecting of 2 bent beams of coils improves the likelihood of contact occurring.
- When coils are in contact there is an initial point of contact, and usually a final point, so contacts are multiples of 2. At contact initiation, the apparent spin is one way, and at departure is opposite. Adjacent contact points switch from top to bottom and suggest an ongoing doughnut/toroid like linear structure.

Atoms

- It is possible for coils to overlap back by more than one subsequent coil, making multiple contact points. The more coils included in an electrical wrapping, the greater the magnetic flux generated in the center. Similarly for the atom, the more loops included in one atom, the greater the nucleus. The loops intersect at multiple points and toroidal proponents might view them as as piling upon each other providing a thicker doughnut type wrap focusing on the center. Since the protons offsets to and equal in number to electrons, we’ll call the neutrons the source of magnetic flux. Other properties arise from this third dimensional view.

Shape

- Overlap of two beams suggests a donut shape with two intermingled beams and exit points for each.
- The contact points add no ‘body’ to the structure so we can call them electrons which have no mass. They may repeat every 1 ½ loops and are in different orientation until the second recurrence

Electrons

- The key difference between radiation and mass is loop crossings that remain in place. Crossings have no mass and are electrons. Crossing ultimately leads to crossing back yielding paired electrons. Touching tangent lines, rather than crossing is unpaired and indicates free electrons.

Protons

- The loop overlap meets the conditions of mass. As all loops are attached in the stream, the whole group has three dimensions, all orthogonally related. Loops have weight because external paep gravity beams are deflected. Thus, like electromagnetic copper coils yielding magnetism, the center of a group of loops acquires an existence. Instead of a flow of magnetism, the center becomes a concentration of mass. That concentration is assigned the positive charge and the total weight of the proton and neutron loops.

Neutrons

- With coils intersecting from multiple directions, some may be included within the maze of coils bound together which do not participate by intersecting others coils. The weight of a proton must be the weight of a coil, while the weight of a nutron is the weight of a non-intersecting coil which therefore has no contacts and thus no electrons.

The Atom

- The various features of the overlapping loops connect with particles of elements. I suggest a loop and its interconnection with adjacent loops to be an atom. I suggest the crossings are electrons. Crossings at top of loop, bottom of loop, internal crossings, and tangents suggest electrons at various shell levels. The enclosed empty spaces relate to nuclei particles such as protons and neutrons. The concept of weight is the total paep pushing pressure that passes through one loop. The more loops in an atom, the more weight and the more protons and neutrons.

Bounds

- The source creating the structure of each atom is curvature of the helical wave beams. The element forms have thus far been implied as being under constant recreation via beam motion through space. Earthly elements are permanent manifestations. Locally they exist in three dimensions and most are bounded in all directions. They remain constant with the sum of paep beams and local environments remaining unchanged. It is local permanence that allows element masses to remain bounded and appear solid.

Molecule

- A molecule is a collection of atoms of the same structure. There is some sort of discontinuity for a molecule to exist and be complete relative to nearby molecules.

Shells

- In quantum theory, energy levels of atoms are a function of electron shells. The shells are electron orbits comparable to the loops discussed above. The greater energy happens to come from the outermost loops. This is the K level and holds two electrons (our 2 outer crossings) for all but hydrogen.
- Adjacent loops intersecting produce the K level. If a loop intersects back by a second loop, the intersections are closer to the loop cluster center and are thus the L level. The number of loops that intersect back produces the fill for each shell and additional shells as they intersect back further.

Gravity

- Magnetism is gravity, electron clouds are paep streams and electrons nothing more than the location of beam contacts. We have relied on various perpendicular relationship to distinguish the flow of these activities from each other. Classical physics recognized electricity and magnetism as perpendicular flows and recognizes the right hand rule to relate them. Essentially we really have looping within each entity enclosing an axis of rotation relative to which other spirals can interact from any of the orthogonal directions. Each beam is gravity intersecting itself. The position of the observer determines which function is which. Our review of the magnetosphere serves as an example.

Subsequent Topics

- 1. Cosmological redshift
- 2. The problem with black holes
- 3. Entropy
- 4. Space travel
- 5. Growth of earth over time.
- 6. Laws of space and motions
- 7. Tides

Perpendicular Vectors

- Next we bend the tube so that its ends attach in a circle like a doughnut, or toroid shape. The whole represents a cross section of a magnetic current flow. The magnetism becomes paeps at right angles as the electrons had previously. But now the paep flow is perpendicular to the page in the third dimension. Unless we stack a lot of tubes on top of each other, the toroid gives a short doughnut hole so applying the right hand rule gives a short gravity flow inside the loop. This then is what is known as a wound toroid. Outside of the toroid the wire is repelling paeps in one direction while the doughnut, as a cross section, is repelling them in a different direction (2 right hand rules). Vectors that are perpendicular are said to be orthogonal. In three-space, three vectors can be mutually perpendicular. Since there are 3 orthogonal directional axes, there should be some tidal action occurring outside the toroid.

Inner Oval

- Within a round doughnut or tube, the magnetic flux is a line passing through the center. If the outer shape is appropriate, an inner shape may form rather than the line. The new shape creates a further inner flow line or shape.

Toroid

- I found a picture of a torrid that is sort of oval but has flat ends. I believe the electron flow (up from the page) from this shape would be like lifting an inner oval, one which has no corners and whose foci remain interior. Then a second level of flow might form within that oval. This idea returns subsequently as a description of the formation of electron shells within atoms.

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