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Transport Problems. Comparison between MDCs & LDCs. The major transport problems. Major urban transport problems in common. 1. increasing commuter traffic & traffic congestion 2. insufficient / substandard public transport service 3. narrow street, inadequate parking space

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Transport problems

Transport Problems

Comparison between MDCs & LDCs



Major urban transport problems in common
Major urban transport problems in common

  • 1. increasing commuter traffic & traffic congestion

  • 2. insufficient / substandard public transport service

  • 3. narrow street, inadequate parking space

  • 4. traffic accidents & pedestrian safety

  • 5. air & noise pollution

  • 6. –ve impacts on urban growth


1 increasing commuter traffic traffic congestion

MDCs:

Heavy reliance on automobiles (economic growth)

long commuting journey & peak hours (suburbanization)

Reduced traffic speeds

e.g. < 15 km / hr in

many US cities

LDCs:

- Narrow streets

Poor traffic mgt

(even animals are

found wandering

on streets; why?)

Poor maintenance of cars: effects?

Local, traditional & backward forms of transport

e.g. carts, rickshaws

1. increasing commuter traffic & traffic congestion


Transport problems

2. insufficient / substandard public transport service

  • LDCs:

  • Outdated, insufficient and overused

  • Many unserved areas

  • Mostly non-powered / man-power vehicles

  • Inadequate funding

  • MDCs:

  • Insufficient public tr. Service to meet the peak-hour demand

    e.g. Metro in Paris

    >115% capacity

    Tokyo rail system

    >300% of capacity


Transport problems

3. narrow street, inadequate parking space

  • LDCs:

  • Insufficient road surface

  • MDCs:

  • More serious

    (why?)

    (hint: econ activities & ownership of private cars)

    - double-parking along roadsides


Transport problems

4. traffic accidents & pedestrian safety

  • LDCs:

  • Many pedestrians on streets (why?)

  • Pedestrians compete with vehicles on streets

  • MDCs:

  • Widening of roads leads to shrinking of pedestrian walkways

  • Shortening of time of green light crossing for pedestrians


Transport problems

5. air & noise pollution

  • MDCs & LDCs:

  • Use of low-quality fuels / high sulphur content /

    diesel vehicles

  • Pollutants: exhaust gases, including CO, CO2, SO2, NOx, lead

  • effects: smog, acid rain, health problems (respiratory diseases, lung cancer, brain damage, e.g. kid’s IQ in rural vs urban in UK)

  • Increasing burning of fossil fuels

  • effects: urban heat island effect, global warming


Transport problems

6. –ve impacts on urban growth

  • MDCs & LDCs:

  • Increase in transport cost

  • Decrease in productivity

  • Increase in traffic demand, upsetting dev’t plan

    e.g. influx of immigrants

  • Hindering future city growth

    e.g. inadequate space for comprehensive tr.

    improvement projects

    - Lacing proper inter-modal co-ordination



Major causes

MDCs

Rapid pop. growth

(e.g. rural-urban migration, immigrants), high std of living

Suburbanization & industrialization

Insufficient funding

Specialization of functional / spatial segregation of urban land uses

(longer work trips)

LDCs

Rapid pop. growth

(e.g. natural increase, rural-urban migration, overurbanization)

Primate cities

Insufficient funding

Lack of public service

More mixed land use

(live there work there)

Major causes



Solutions1
solutions

  • 1. staggered working hours

  • 2. transport priority measures:

    e.g. bus-only lanes, traffic lights,

    yellow junction boxes, restricted

    time

  • 3. construction of new roads

    e.g. ring road in HK & bypasses?

  • 4. public transport

    e.g. ‘park and ride’ scheme


Transport problems

solutions

  • 5. new transport mode

    • e.g. hybrid car, Euro diesel car

  • 6. separating traffic and pedestrians

    e.g. flyovers, pedestrian zone

  • 7. higher charges

    e.g. tax on new vehicle purchase,

    1st time registration, parking,

    fuel, electronic road - pricing

    system


Transport problems

solutions

  • 8. decentralization of eco. activities

    e.g. industries, retailing firms

    from the city centre

  • 9. education on road safety

    • e.g. road crossing & drink-driving laws

  • 10. R&D

    e.g. cleaner fuels & engines

  • 11. Better town planning

    e.g. decentralization, new towns

    (self-contained communities)


Solution problem free

Solution – problem-free?

An example of building ring roads & bypasses


Ring roads and bypasses advantages
Ring roads and bypasses: advantages

  • Allowing traffic to pass a city

  • Without getting into the busy inner areas


Transport problems

Ring roads and bypasses: problems

  • Conflict of interests – for? against?

  • Environmentalists?

  • Residents?

  • Landlords?

  • Shop owners?


Are there best practices

Are there ‘best practices’?

How to work out the best strategy to solve urban transport problems?