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EDUC 529 BUILDING COMMUNITIES: EDUCATION BEYOND THE CLASSROOM. “ Learning in Places” Research Methodologies By Gabriel Kemp. Introduction.

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educ 529 building communities education beyond the classroom
EDUC 529 BUILDING COMMUNITIES: EDUCATION BEYOND THE CLASSROOM

“ Learning in Places”

Research Methodologies

By Gabriel Kemp

introduction
Introduction
  • “Learning in Places” discusses various issues and concepts relating to informal learning in diverse settings. Various research methodologies are used. Most methodologies are qualitative but some quantitative studies are included.
table of contents
Table of Contents
  • Introduction
  • Chapter 1- Beyond Curriculum-Fostering Associational Life in Schools
  • Chapter 2- Dialogic Inquiry in Classroom and Museum- Actions, Tools, and Talk
  • Chapter 3- A new Angle on Families- Connecting the Mathematics of Life with School Mathematics
  • Chapter 4- Identity and Agency in Non-school and School Worlds
  • Chapter 5- Schools Invasion of After-School –Colonization, Rationalization or expansion of Access?
  • Chapter 6- Parent-Child Conservations about Science and Literacy-Links between Formal and Informal Learning
  • Chapter 7- Cultural Teaching and Learning-Processes, Effects, and Development of Apprenticeship Skills
  • Chapter 8- ”This is our School of Citizenship”- Informal Learning in Local Democracy
  • Chapter 9- Culture Matters-Informal Science Centers and Cultural Contexts
  • Chapter 10- Informal Learning-Conceptual Distinctions and Preliminary Findings
  • Chapter 11- ”Dancing with Words”- Narrative on Formal Education
  • Chapter 12- Images of Time and Place in the Narrative of Nonformal Pedagogy
  • Chapter 13- Self Educating Communities- Collaboration and Learning through the Internet
  • Chapter 14- Situating genius
chapter 1 beyond curriculum fostering associational life in schools author mark k smith
Chapter 1Beyond Curriculum-Fostering Associational Life in SchoolsAuthor: Mark K. Smith
  • Conversational and associational learning environments support informal learning and creating these informal learning environments in formal education would benefit overall learning

Methodology

Context

Possible Findings

Applications

Table of Contents

Next Chapter(2)

Introduction

beyond curriculum fostering associational life in schools
Beyond Curriculum-Fostering Associational Life in Schools

Methodology

  • Survey research of informal educators
  • Literature Review-Meta Analysis of multiple case studies

Context

  • Historical Analysis of UK School System focusing on

Table of Contents

Next Chapter(2)

Introduction

beyond curriculum fostering associational life in schools1
Beyond Curriculum-Fostering Associational Life in Schools

Possible Findings

  • Informal Educators are the link between formal education and society
  • Promoting groups/teams in informal settings can enhance learning
  • Curriculum should be de-emphasized as the central feature of education
  • Classroom teachers should understand the importance of associations, relationships, connections that are a focus of informal educators
  • “Vocabulary of Hope”-strive for improvement even if it seems complex

Applications

  • Improvement of informal learning within formal learning environments
  • Can be utilized in teacher training, Pro-D

Table of Contents

Next Chapter(2)

Introduction

slide7
Chapter 2Dialogic Inquiry in Classroom and Museum- Actions, Tools, and TalkAuthor: Doris Ash and Gordon Wells
  • Conversations and interactions can support learning in both formal and informal learning settings

Methodology

Context

Possible Findings

Applications

Previous Chapter(1)

Table of Contents

Next Chapter(3)

dialogic inquiry in classroom and museum actions tools and talk
Dialogic Inquiry in Classroom and Museum- Actions, Tools, and Talk

Methodology

  • Qualitative Analysis of dialogue
  • Museum- video and audio recordings of exhibit conversations and pre/post visit interviews
  • Classroom- transcripts of classroom dialogue

Context

  • Museum- examines visits by families
  • Families chosen on the basis of children’s age(s), # of children, availability for interview and interest- eg: Exhibit- Computer interactive display on evolution
  • Classroom- Typical classroom setting- 1 teacher and 25-30 students eg: Class-8-9 year olds- Lesson: Conservation of Mass
  • Differences in settings- # of settings participants, kind of setting, mediation, context, time

Previous Chapter(1)

Table of Contents

Next Chapter(3)

dialogic inquiry in classroom and museum actions tools and talk1
Dialogic Inquiry in Classroom and Museum- Actions, Tools, and Talk

Possible Findings

  • Both settings showed similar characteristics of collaborative knowledge building-utilize productive collaborative Dialogue activities
  • “Social constructivist” theory valuable in formal and informal settings

Applications

  • Learning environments should reflect the best learning practices of socio-cultural activity theory (Dialogic Inquiry)
  • All learning environments should help assist building the zone of proximal development through collaborative dialogue

Previous Chapter(1)

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Next Chapter(3)

slide10
Chapter 3A New Angle on Families- Connecting the Mathematics of Life with School Mathematics Author: Shelley Goldman
  • Parent-student informal learning interactions should be utilized to connect daily life and formal learning environments

Methodology

Context

Possible Findings

Applications

Previous Chapter(2)

Table of Contents

Next Chapter(4)

a new angle on families connecting the mathematics of life with school mathematics
A New Angle on Families- Connecting the Mathematics of Life with School Mathematics

Methodology

  • Ethnographic Research including case study
  • Intense study of 6 families
  • Field notes and video tapes
  • Research in action

Context

  • Focuses on interests of families in the context of mathematics of their daily life

Table of Contents

Previous Chapter(2)

Next Chapter(4)

a new angle on families connecting the mathematics of life with school mathematics1
A New Angle on Families- Connecting the Mathematics of Life with School Mathematics

Possible Findings

  • Families rarely recognized that they did math in daily life except arithmetic but did no think arithmetic was math
  • Parents felt there was no relationship between daily life and school math
  • The disconnect between daily life and school life diminishes possible learning opportunities

Applications

  • Educators/Parents should develop strategies to build connections between daily life and school content
  • Develop resource materials for parents and educators to bridge school and home learning( eg. PRIME- help recognize life math skills as a part of math learning)

Previous Chapter(2)

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slide13
Chapter 4Identity and Agency in Non-school and School WorldsAuthor: Glynda A. Hull and James G. Greeno
  • After-school informal learning settings help build identity by utilizing highly participatory environments

Methodology

Context

Possible Findings

Applications

Previous Chapter(3)

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Next Chapter(5)

identity and agency in non school and school worlds
Identity and Agency in Non-school and School Worlds

Methodology

  • Multiple case study research including literature review

Context

  • US education and after-school programs
  • Mathematics and literacy from classrooms in after-school programs and workplaces

Previous Chapter(3)

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identity and agency in non school and school worlds1
Identity and Agency in Non-school and School Worlds

Possible Findings

  • Should not focus on the separation between school and non-school but should focus on the participation within the settings
  • It is important to develop interpersonal, epistemic and discourse identities in all settings

Applications

  • After-school programs are good settings to redistribute authority, use community knowledge and connections, be flexible with activity choice and build bridges with schools to help build identity
  • Develop after-school programs in concert with school programs

Previous Chapter(3)

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Next Chapter(5)

slide16
Chapter 5Schools Invasion of After-School –Colonization, Rationalization or expansion of Access? Authors:Honorine Nocon and Michael Cole
  • Informal learning environments are flexible and effective learning settings that should maintain some independence from the formal education system

Methodology

Context

Possible Findings

Applications

Previous Chapter(4)

Table of Contents

Next Chapter(6)

schools invasion of after school colonization rationalization or expansion of access
Schools Invasion of After-School –Colonization, Rationalization or expansion of Access?

Methodology

  • California Case Study- 5th Dimension Model – 40 programs at 20 universities in America, Europe and the Americas
  • Research in Action

Context

  • 5th Dimension Model- development of after-school programs aimed at improving academic performance of children not likely to be successful in school, focuses on learning potential not quantitative measures and sorting/ranking
  • School in After-School- examines the influences of formal schooling on 5th Dimension model after-school programs

Table of Contents

Previous Chapter(4)

Next Chapter(6)

schools invasion of after school colonization rationalization or expansion of access1
Schools Invasion of After-School –Colonization, Rationalization or expansion of Access?

Possible Findings

  • The value of after-school programs lie in their open informal nature- flexible sites for informal education
  • Introduction of formal educational formats (homework club, sorting of students) into after-school programs negatively affected the benefits to learning that after-school programs provide for students who are not successful in formal schooling

Applications

  • After-school programs should provide students voluntary access to diverse opportunities for problem solving and self regulation of learning
  • Informal learning opportunities could be introduced into formal schooling as opposed to introducing formal schooling into informal after-school programs

Previous Chapter(4)

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slide19

Chapter 6Parent-Child Conservations about Science and Literacy-Links between Formal and Informal LearningAuthors: Maureen A. Callanan and Gegory Braswell

  • Utilizing narrative within informal settings helps link literacy and science

Methodology

Context

Possible Findings

Applications

Previous Chapter(5)

Table of Contents

Next Chapter(7)

parent child conservations about science and literacy links between formal and informal learning
Parent-Child Conservations about Science and Literacy-Links between Formal and Informal Learning

Methodology

  • Observational Study
  • Partnership between university researcher adnn exhibit design staff
  • Video and audio recordings
  • Transcripts of family conversations

Context

  • Located at the Children’s Discovery Museum in California
  • Study focused on how children learn with parents in museum settings(>90 % participation rate)

Previous Chapter(5)

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Next Chapter(7)

parent child conservations about science and literacy links between formal and informal learning1
Parent-Child Conservations about Science and Literacy-Links between Formal and Informal Learning

Possible Findings

  • School like content can emerge in informal learning settings
  • Science and literacy can be linked utilizing narrative
  • Parents are the crucial link in effective connection between formal and informal learning
  • Language has a crucial role in science facilitated learning
  • Children enter school with knowledge of the language of science

Applications

  • Narrative learning can be used in other exhibits
  • Teachers should utilize parents as experts and a resource for school science topics
  • Spontaneous questioning should be encouraged
  • Formal science education can build on skills learned from parent –student conversations

Previous Chapter(5)

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slide22

Chapter 7Cultural Teaching and Learning-Processes, Effects, and Development of Apprenticeship SkillsAuthors: Ashley E. Maynard and Patricia M. Greenfield

  • Apprenticeships are effective informal learning environments that evolve with changing socio-economic conditions

Methodology

Context

Possible Findings

Applications

Previous Chapter(6)

Table of Contents

Next Chapter(8)

cultural teaching and learning processes effects and development of apprenticeship skills
Cultural Teaching and Learning-Processes, Effects, and Development of Apprenticeship Skills

Methodology

  • Ethnographic Research utilizing historical case study-measure the processes of teaching and learning and how the processes are effected by historical changes (socio-economic shifts)
  • Naturalistic video data from 2 generations(1969-70 and 1990-93)

Context

  • Study examines Weaving in a Mayan Hamlet in Chiapas Mexico (1969-2003)
  • Two successive generations of girls learning to weave over 2 decades

Table of Contents

Previous Chapter(6)

Next Chapter(8)

cultural teaching and learning processes effects and development of apprenticeship skills1
Cultural Teaching and Learning-Processes, Effects, and Development of Apprenticeship Skills

Possible Findings

  • Changing the modes of apprenticeship led to changes in cognitive representation
  • The stage of cognitive development constrains the tools/tasks provided to learners
  • Cultural teaching adapts to changing cultural environments
  • Adaptive modes of cultural teaching emphasis cognitive development

Applications

  • Children can learn from more than one teacher
  • Teaching/learning not necessarily a didactic, one teacher model of cultural transmission
  • Active participation by the learner leads to cognitive development
  • Teachers should develop to ability to teach according to a cultural model with the techniques adapted to the developmental level

Previous Chapter(6)

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Next Chapter(8)

slide25
Chapter 8“This is our School of Citizenship”- Informal Learning in Local DemocracyAuthor: Daniel Schugurensky
  • An informed school of citizenship provides opportunity for political/democratic learning that are based on inclusion

Methodology

Context

Possible Findings

Applications

Previous Chapter(7)

Table of Contents

Next Chapter(9)

this is our school of citizenship informal learning in local democracy
“This is our School of Citizenship”- Informal Learning in Local Democracy

Methodology

  • Case Study
  • Participatory budget of Porto Alegre Brazil
  • Interview 30 delegates focusing on knowledge skills and attitudes using 28 indicators and open ended pre/post participation question

Context

  • Majority of the participant's female with low income
  • Looked for changes in indicators
  • Examines informal civic/ political learning that occurs in local processes of deliberation and decision making

Table of Contents

Previous Chapter(7)

Next Chapter(9)

this is our school of citizenship informal learning in local democracy1
“This is our School of Citizenship”- Informal Learning in Local Democracy

Possible Findings

  • There were larger changes to knowledge and skills than attitude
  • Learning acquired was significant and mostly incidental and part of socialization

Applications

  • Informal learning not formulated by externally imposed curriculum
  • Informed school of citizenship provides opportunity for political/democratic learning that are based on inclusion
  • Informal learning can be introduced into formal education

Previous Chapter(7)

Table of Contents

Next Chapter(9)

chapter 9 culture matters informal science centers and cultural contexts author sally duensing
Chapter 9Culture Matters-Informal Science Centers and Cultural ContextsAuthor: Sally Duensing

-A discussion of how science museum exhibit, programs, and pedagogical practices vary in different cultural contexts

-highlights differences in cultural museum practice to explore the relationships of cultural contexts to explore and question relationships between cultural contexts and variations in informal and formal learning environments

Methodology

Context

Possible Findings

Applications

Previous Chapter(8)

Table of Contents

Next Chapter(10)

culture matters informal science centers and cultural contexts
Culture Matters-Informal Science Centers and Cultural Contexts

Methodology

  • Ethnographic Research examining differences in informal learning culture utilizing personal observations, interviews and literature review

Context

  • Focuses on science centers exhibit designs, management of visitors, staff interactions

Table of Contents

Previous Chapter(8)

Next Chapter(10)

culture matters informal science centers and cultural contexts1
Culture Matters-Informal Science Centers and Cultural Contexts

Possible Findings

  • The characteristics of informal learning at science centers and museums are influenced by the culture that hosts these settings

Applications

  • Cultural adaptations should be made to informal learning settings to maximize learning opportunities.
  • Facilitators/Teachers should be provided with the resources to adapt learning environments to best match the need of the informal learner

Previous Chapter(8)

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slide31
Chapter 10Informal Learning-Conceptual Distinctions and Preliminary FindingsAuthor: D.W. Livingstone
  • Surveys investigating informal learning need to focus on reducing biases to help understand the processes

Methodology

Context

Possible Findings

Applications

Previous Chapter(9)

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Next Chapter(11)

informal learning conceptual distinctions and preliminary findings
Informal Learning-Conceptual Distinctions and Preliminary Findings

Methodology

  • Literature Review- an analysis of previous studies
  • Reviewed virtually all previous studies on informal education
  • Pilot testing of informal learning surveys

Context

  • This article is an analysis of informal learning studies focusing on recent Canadian studies

Table of Contents

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informal learning conceptual distinctions and preliminary findings1
Informal Learning-Conceptual Distinctions and Preliminary Findings

Possible Findings

  • There was an increase in intentional learning activities science the 1970’s
  • Increase in IT provides a greater opportunity for informal learning
  • There is significant bias in informal learning studies- individualistic, dominant class, leading questions

Applications

  • More grounded research is needed to document actual processes of informal learning and training

Previous Chapter(9)

Table of Contents

Next Chapter(11)

chapter 11 dancing with words narrative on formal education author zvi bekerman
Chapter 11“Dancing with Words”- Narrative on Formal EducationAuthor: Zvi Bekerman
  • Facilitators of informal educational environments should foster open discourse and conversation

Methodology

Context

Possible Findings

Applications

Previous Chapter(10)

Table of Contents

Next Chapter(12)

dancing with words narrative on formal education
“Dancing with Words”- Narrative on Formal Education

Methodology

  • Ethnographic Case Studies
  • Audio-taped and transcribed interviews with

Context

  • Educators from informal seminars on “Awareness of Jewishness and it’s influence on your lives”
  • Educators have 1-2 years experience with the high school level

Table of Contents

Previous Chapter(10)

Next Chapter(12)

dancing with words narrative on formal education1
“Dancing with Words”- Narrative on Formal Education

Possible Findings

  • Informal institutions can contribute to innovative educational experiments
  • It is difficult for educators to distinguish between personal and public ( school) discourse
  • Expressing personal opinions can have potential for political change
  • Need to construct dialogical relationships
  • Facilitators should not practice complete “neutrality”
  • Liberators efforts of facilitators can reinforce the power structure

Applications

  • When teaching controversial subjects in formal school there must be a balance between contributing personal opinion and following cultural norms
  • Facilitators should promote freedom in an independent way

Previous Chapter(10)

Table of Contents

Next Chapter(12)

slide37
Chapter 12Images of Time and Place in the Narrative of Nonformal PedagogyAuthor: Dana Silberman-Keller

Discourse regarding informal learning environments describes these environments using their time and place

Methodology

Context

Possible Findings

Applications

Previous Chapter(11)

Table of Contents

Next Chapter(13)

images of time and place in the narrative of nonformal pedagogy
Images of Time and Place in the Narrative of Nonformal Pedagogy

Methodology

  • Qualitative Research
  • Interviewing officials and reading and analyzing texts relating to the organization

Context

  • Focus on the organizational/pedagogical attributes of out of school organizations in the context of time and place
  • Describes the time and place images of the chronotype of nonformal education using the discourse of those who are utilizing these images

Previous Chapter(11)

Table of Contents

Next Chapter(13)

images of time and place in the narrative of nonformal pedagogy1
Images of Time and Place in the Narrative of Nonformal Pedagogy

Possible Findings

  • The discourse of nonformal pedagogy results from the description of the time and place as part of the interaction between self perception

Applications

  • The perception is that nonformal learning relates highly to the time and place
  • Strive to change the relationship between nonformal learning and its time and place context to help encourage continuous informal learning

Previous Chapter(11)

Table of Contents

Next Chapter(13)

slide40
Chapter 13Self Educating Communities- Collaboration and Learning through the InternetAuthor: Nicholas C. Burbules

Online Self-educating communities are successful informal learning environments when members cooperate for the benefit of the whole group

Methodology

Context

Possible Findings

Applications

Previous Chapter(12)

Table of Contents

Next Chapter(14)

self educating communities collaboration and learning through the internet
Self Educating Communities- Collaboration and Learning through the Internet

Methodology

  • Narrative research

Context

  • Focuses on online self-educating communities
  • Only people with access to the internet can participate

Previous Chapter(12)

Table of Contents

Next Chapter(14)

self educating communities collaboration and learning through the internet1
Self Educating Communities- Collaboration and Learning through the Internet

Possible Findings

  • Self motivation is key to successful Self-educating communities
  • The role of teachers and students are not static

Applications

  • Self educating communities can be utilized in non-formal and formal educational settings
  • As with most educational activities, self motivation is key for success

Previous Chapter(12)

Table of Contents

Next Chapter(14)

chapter 14 situating genius author ray mcdermott
Chapter 14Situating geniusAuthor: Ray McDermott
  • A historical analysis of the concept of “genius” and its relationship to learning theory

Methodology

Context

Possible Findings

Applications

Table of Contents

Previous Chapter(13)

situating genius
Situating genius

Methodology

  • Conceptual-Historical analysis

Context

  • Discusses the concept of genius through out history

Previous Chapter(13)

Table of Contents

situating genius1
Situating genius

Possible Findings

  • The idea of genius is based on the changes in the theories of learning
  • The traditional definition of genius ranks individuals
  • The modern “genius” is built on the contributions of others and the process of learning

Applications

  • The idea of genius should be redefined to catch up with our modern understanding of intelligence and learning

Previous Chapter(13)

Table of Contents