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CS 8520: Artificial Intelligence. Robotics Paula Matuszek Fall, 2008. What is your favorite robot?. HAL 9000. Robby – Forbidden Planet Robocop Data. What is a robot?.

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cs 8520 artificial intelligence

CS 8520: Artificial Intelligence

Robotics

Paula Matuszek

Fall, 2008

what is your favorite robot
What is your favorite robot?

HAL 9000

Robby – Forbidden Planet

Robocop

Data

CSC 8520 Fall, 2008. Paula Matuszek. Slides based on www.jhu.edu/virtlab/course-info/ei/ppt/robotics-part1.ppt and -part2.ppt

slide3

What is a robot?

“A robot is a reprogrammable, multifunctional manipulator designed to move material, parts, tools, or specialized devices through variable programmed motions for the performance of a variety of tasks.” (Robot Institute of America)

Definition:

Alternate definition:

“A robot is a one-armed, blind idiot with limited memory and which cannot speak, see, or hear.”

CSC 8520 Fall, 2008. Paula Matuszek. Slides based on www.jhu.edu/virtlab/course-info/ei/ppt/robotics-part1.ppt and -part2.ppt

what are robots good at
What are robots good at?
  • What is hard for humans is easy for robots.
    • Repetitive tasks.
    • Continuous operation.
    • Complicated calculations.
    • Refer to huge databases.
  • What is easy for a human is hard for robots.
    • Reasoning.
    • Adapting to new situations.
    • Flexible to changing requirements.
    • Integrating multiple sensors.
    • Resolving conflicting data.
    • Synthesizing unrelated information.
    • Creativity.

CSC 8520 Fall, 2008. Paula Matuszek. Slides based on www.jhu.edu/virtlab/course-info/ei/ppt/robotics-part1.ppt and -part2.ppt

what tasks would you give robots
What tasks would you give robots?
  • Dangerous
    • space exploration
    • chemical spill cleanup
    • disarming bombs
    • disaster cleanup
  • Boring and/or repetitive
    • welding car frames
    • part pick and place
    • manufacturing parts.
  • High precision or high speed
    • electronics testing
    • surgery
    • precision machining.

CSC 8520 Fall, 2008. Paula Matuszek. Slides based on www.jhu.edu/virtlab/course-info/ei/ppt/robotics-part1.ppt and -part2.ppt

what does building robots teach us about humans
What does building robots teach us about humans?
  • How do our sensors work?
    • eyes
    • brain
  • How do we integrate sensors?
  • How does our muscular-skeletal system work?
    • How do we grab and hold an object?
  • How does our brain process information?
  • What is nature of intelligence?
  • How do we make decisions?

CSC 8520 Fall, 2008. Paula Matuszek. Slides based on www.jhu.edu/virtlab/course-info/ei/ppt/robotics-part1.ppt and -part2.ppt

what subsystems make up a robot
What subsystems make up a robot?
  • Action
    • Stationary base
    • Mobile
  • Sensors
  • Control
  • Power supply

Robert Stengel, Princeton Univ.

CSC 8520 Fall, 2008. Paula Matuszek. Slides based on www.jhu.edu/virtlab/course-info/ei/ppt/robotics-part1.ppt and -part2.ppt

action do some function
Action – do some function.
  • Actuators
    • pneumatic
    • hydraulic
    • electric solenoid
  • Motors
    • Analog (continuous)
    • Stepping (discrete increments)
  • Gears, belts, screws, levers
  • Manipulations

CSC 8520 Fall, 2008. Paula Matuszek. Slides based on www.jhu.edu/virtlab/course-info/ei/ppt/robotics-part1.ppt and -part2.ppt

three types of robot actions
Three types of robot actions.
  • Pick and place
    • Moves items between points.
  • Continuous path control
    • Moves along a programmable path
  • Sensory
    • Employs sensors for feedback

CSC 8520 Fall, 2008. Paula Matuszek. Slides based on www.jhu.edu/virtlab/course-info/ei/ppt/robotics-part1.ppt and -part2.ppt

how do robots move
How do robots move?
  • Simple joints (2D)
    • Prismatic — sliding along one axis
      • square cylinder in square tube
    • Revolute — rotating about one axis
  • Compound joints (3D)
    • ball and socket = 3 revolute joints
    • round cylinder in tube = 1 prismatic, 1 revolute
  • Degrees of freedom = Number of independent motions
    • 3 degrees of freedom: 2 translation, 1 rotation
    • 6 degrees of freedom: 3 translation, 3 rotation

CSC 8520 Fall, 2008. Paula Matuszek. Slides based on www.jhu.edu/virtlab/course-info/ei/ppt/robotics-part1.ppt and -part2.ppt

mobility
Mobility
  • Legs
  • Wheels
  • Tracks
  • Crawls
  • Rolls

CSC 8520 Fall, 2008. Paula Matuszek. Slides based on www.jhu.edu/virtlab/course-info/ei/ppt/robotics-part1.ppt and -part2.ppt

what sensors might robots have
What sensors might robots have?
  • Optical
    • Laser / radar
    • 3D
    • Color spectrum
  • Pressure
  • Temperature
  • Chemical
  • Motion & Accelerometer
  • Acoustic
    • Ultrasonic

CSC 8520 Fall, 2008. Paula Matuszek. Slides based on www.jhu.edu/virtlab/course-info/ei/ppt/robotics-part1.ppt and -part2.ppt

what use are sensors
What use are sensors?
  • Uses sensors for feedback
    • Closed-loop robots use sensors in conjunction with actuators to gain higher accuracy – servo motors.
    • Uses include mobile robotics, telepresence, search and rescue, pick and place with machine vision.

CSC 8520 Fall, 2008. Paula Matuszek. Slides based on www.jhu.edu/virtlab/course-info/ei/ppt/robotics-part1.ppt and -part2.ppt

control the brain
Control - the Brain
  • Open loop, i.e., no feedback, deterministic
    • Instructions
    • Rules
  • Closed loop, i.e., feedback
    • Learn
    • Adapt

CSC 8520 Fall, 2008. Paula Matuszek. Slides based on www.jhu.edu/virtlab/course-info/ei/ppt/robotics-part1.ppt and -part2.ppt

what are some problems with control of robot actions
What are some problems with control of robot actions?
  • Joint play, compounded through N joints.
  • Accelerating masses produce vibration, elastic deformations in links.
  • Torques, stresses transmitted depending on end actuator loads.
  • Feedback loop creates instabilities.
    • Delay between sensing and reaction.
  • Firmware and software problems
    • Especially with more intelligent approaches

CSC 8520 Fall, 2008. Paula Matuszek. Slides based on www.jhu.edu/virtlab/course-info/ei/ppt/robotics-part1.ppt and -part2.ppt

how do you measures of performance of robot
How do you measures of performance of robot?
  • Speed and acceleration
  • Resolution
  • Working volume
  • Accuracy
  • Cost
  • Plus all the kinds of evaluation functions we have talked about for any AI system.

CSC 8520 Fall, 2008. Paula Matuszek. Slides based on www.jhu.edu/virtlab/course-info/ei/ppt/robotics-part1.ppt and -part2.ppt

measures of performance
Measures of Performance
  • Speed and acceleration
    • Faster speed often reduces resolution or increases cost
    • Varies depending on position, load.
    • Speed can be limited by the task the robot performs (welding, cutting)
  • Resolution
    • Often a speed tradeoff
    • The smallest movement the robot can make
  • Working volume
    • The space within which the robot operates.
    • Larger volume costs more but can increase the capabilities of a robot

CSC 8520 Fall, 2008. Paula Matuszek. Slides based on www.jhu.edu/virtlab/course-info/ei/ppt/robotics-part1.ppt and -part2.ppt

slide18

Performance (cont.)

  • Accuracy
    • The difference between the actual position of the robot and the programmed position
    • Repeatability
      • Will the robot always return to the same point under the same control conditions?
      • Varies depending on position, load
  • Cost
    • Typically a tradeoff – improved performance on other metrics vs lower cost

CSC 8520 Fall, 2008. Paula Matuszek. Slides based on www.jhu.edu/virtlab/course-info/ei/ppt/robotics-part1.ppt and -part2.ppt

how are robots different from automated machinery
How are robots different from automated machinery?
  • Machinery is designed to carry out a specific task.
    • Bottling machine
    • Dishwasher
    • Paint sprayer
  • Robots are designed to carry out a variety of tasks
    • Pick and place arms
    • Mobile robots
    • Computer Numerical Control machines
  • The lines are becoming blurred.

CSC 8520 Fall, 2008. Paula Matuszek. Slides based on www.jhu.edu/virtlab/course-info/ei/ppt/robotics-part1.ppt and -part2.ppt

slide20

The Future of Robotics.

  • Robots that can learn.
  • Robots with artificial intelligence.
  • Robots that make other robots.
  • Swarms

CSC 8520 Fall, 2008. Paula Matuszek. Slides based on www.jhu.edu/virtlab/course-info/ei/ppt/robotics-part1.ppt and -part2.ppt

slide21
Lab:
  • Look at a couple of robotic videos and note:
    • Which features makes the task something a robot would be used for?
    • What are the components of the robot:
      • Action
      • Sensors
      • Control
      • Power Supply
  • How is their performance?
    • Speed and acceleration
    • Resolution
    • Working volume
    • Accuracy
    • Cost

CSC 8520 Fall, 2008. Paula Matuszek. Slides based on www.jhu.edu/virtlab/course-info/ei/ppt/robotics-part1.ppt and -part2.ppt

some good robotics videos
Some good robotics videos.
  • Swimming fish:
    • http://vger.aa.washington.edu/research.html
    • http://www.newscientist.com/article/dn14101-shoal-of-robot-fish-casts-a-wider-data-net.html
  • Robot wars:
    • http://robogames.net/videos.php
  • Japanese robots:
    • http://www.ecst.csuchico.edu/~renner/Teaching/Robotics/videos.html (note: about half the links are broken)
  • Social robots:
    • http://www.ai.mit.edu/projects/humanoid-robotics-group/kismet/kismet.html
  • Miscellaneous Robots:
    • http://www.newscientist.com/article/dn9972-video-top-10-robots.html
    • http://grinding.be/category/robots
  • Swarms
    • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=SkvpEfAPXn4

CSC 8520 Fall, 2008. Paula Matuszek. Slides based on www.jhu.edu/virtlab/course-info/ei/ppt/robotics-part1.ppt and -part2.ppt

play robot constructor
Play Robot Constructor
  • http://www.channel4.com/science/microsites/R/robots/constructor.html
  • What options does it give you for
      • Action
      • Sensors
      • Control
      • Power Supply

CSC 8520 Fall, 2008. Paula Matuszek. Slides based on www.jhu.edu/virtlab/course-info/ei/ppt/robotics-part1.ppt and -part2.ppt

will robots take over the world
Will robots take over the world?
  • Which decisions can the machine make without human supervision?
  • May machine-intelligent systems make mistakes (at the same level as humans)?
  • May intelligent systems gamble when uncertain (as humans do)?
  • Can (or should) intelligent systems exhibit personality?
  • Can (or should) intelligent systems express emotion?
  • How much information should the machine display to the human operator?

HAL - 2001 Space Odyssey

CSC 8520 Fall, 2008. Paula Matuszek. Slides based on www.jhu.edu/virtlab/course-info/ei/ppt/robotics-part1.ppt and -part2.ppt