Chemical Elements and Water. Sections 3-1 & 3-2 & IB Topic 3.1. http://users.humboldt.edu/rpaselk/C438.S12/C438Notes/C438nLec04.htm. Many elements occur frequently in living organisms or are of use in metabolic processes. The most frequently occurring elements in living organisms are…?.
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Sections 3-1 & 3-2 & IB Topic 3.1
Many elements occur frequently in living organisms or are of use in metabolic processes.
The most frequently occurring elements in living organisms are…?
these symbols are?
What is this?
What are these
An unreactive (stable) atom has a full outer electron shell. The inner shell is ‘full’ with two electrons. Subsequent shells are ‘full’ with eight electrons.
Inner shell = 2
(full). Outer shell = 1
(not full – lose one!)
Inner shell = 2 full outer shell = 7 (not full – gain one!)
So negative ANION
So positive Cation
Carbon and hydrogen are the foundation of organic molecules – molecules found in living things.
The pH of a solution is a measure of the activity of dissolved H+ ions. A low pH (1- 6) signifies a high concentration of H+ ions. A high pH (8 – 14) signifies low H+ concentration.
Oxygen is also used in oxidation reactions: Oxygen is put in. For example, breaking phosphate from ATP to release energy in tissues.
Iron is often a limiting factor in plant productivity. Experiments of iron seeding can have dramatic effects, such as this phytoplankton bloom seen in the Baltic sea.
The ‘R’ group
Is the variable
Where does the CO2 and O2 come from? Even though light is not directly part of the process, does chemosynthesis still reply on sunlight to an extent?
This is an example of active transport.
on the properties of water.
Can you do this?
Cohesion forms droplets. Surface tension keeps them spherical. Adhesion sticks them to the leaf.
Water has a high specific heat capacity. This means that it takes a lot of energy for the temperature of water to change states. This is because there are so many H-bonds.
This all means that the temperature of water remains relatively stable. Most organisms are adapted to a narrow range of conditions. The slow heating and cooling of water are ideal for these organisms – there is less risk of extreme changes. Water moderates temperature changes.
It takes a lot of energy for water to change temperature. This means that it will heat or cool more slowly than air or land. So animals can use mud or water to cool off on a hot day.
Water makes up 70% of the body, including he blood. Because it is resistant to temperature change, cooler blood from some parts of the body can be circulated to other parts, cooling them down.
Polar attractions cause water molecules to surround and isolate the solute molecules.
Click on the link to try out another animation!
All metabolic reactions (reactions in living things) occur in solution meaning the reactants are dissolved.
What is a metabolic reaction?
break and re-form
Water is a good solvent (yup.. still saying that!): it dissolves nutrients, gases, and waste products. These can be carried in the circulatory system of animals, through xylem and phloem in vascular plants or through the water in soil or aquatic habitats.
Water can transport molecules across membranes in diffusion, as well as within the cell or interstitial (between-cell fluid).