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The Roaring Twenties. Chapter 32. Political Philosophies. Radical (Socialist, Communist, or Anarchist) Conservative—keeping the status quo Reactionary—desire to move society back into a past society, usually idealized

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chapter 32

The Roaring

Twenties

Chapter 32

political philosophies
Political Philosophies
  • Radical (Socialist, Communist, or Anarchist)
  • Conservative—keeping the status quo
  • Reactionary—desire to move society back into a past society, usually idealized
  • Liberal—advocating changes in society’s institutions to reflect changing conditions
americanism
Americanism
  • Red Scare
    • Bolshevik Revolution in Russia sparked paranoia that communism would spread to the US.
    • Large #s of strikes occurred post-WWI
      • b/c of inflation during war
    • Progressed b/c Wilson out of country due to Treaty of Versailles, which led to Red Summer of 1919
strike one
Strike One
  • Seattle General Strike (Jan. 1919)
    • 35K shipyard workers on strike b/c of failed wage increase
    • Other workers across in Seattle joined in the strike
    • Though peaceful, conservatives feared a European-style labor takeover
    • Seattle mayor called for federal troops to head off the “anarchy of Russia”
strike two
Strike Two
  • Boston Police Strike (Sept. 1919)
    • 70% plus of B-Town’s policemen went on strike seeking wage increases & right to unionize
    • Gov. Coolidge called out the National Guard stating there was “no right to strike against public safety”
    • Gompers offered to settle strike, demanding police had no right to form a union
strike three
Strike Three
  • Palmer Raids
    • After bomb scares post-United Mine Workers of America Strike (Nov. 1919), Attorney General A. Mitchell Palmer got $500K from Congress to “tear out the radical seeds”
    • Identities of person who sent bombs never IDed—radicals, Bolsheviks & Wobblies blamed
    • Bombings included Wall Street (38 dead) and Palmer’s Washington home
palmer raids part two
Palmer Raids, Part Two
  • Teachers had to sign loyalty oath
  • “Radicals” deported to Russia; mostly anarchists
  • Jan 1920—5K suspected communists arrested in 33 cites;
    • most seized w/o warrants or just cause
    • 550 Russians deported; many US citizens
public reaction to palmer raids
Public Reaction to Palmer Raids
  • Most Americans condoned Palmer’s actions
  • Many began to question the compromising of individual rights
  • Members of state legislatures were denied seats b/c they were Socialists
  • Conservatives used the “red scare” to break the backs of fledgling unions
sacco and vanzetti
Sacco and Vanzetti
  • S & V charged & convicted of killing 2 people in a robbery in Massachusetts
  • Jury & judge probably prejudiced: S&V were Italians, atheists, anarchists, & draft dodgers
  • Radicalism became issue during the trial
s v case part two
Evidence not conclusive; many believe sentence was due to prejudice

Repeated motions for a new trial were DENIED by Judge Thayer & MSC

Thayer sentenced the men to death by electric chair

S&V Case, Part Two
slide15
KKK
  • Resurgence of KKK began in South but quickly spread to SW & Midwest
  • Total membership as high as 5 million
  • 1915 movie Birth of a Nation
  • Resembled nativist “Know-Nothings” than the anti-black terrorist organization of the 1860s
kkk targets
Opposed immigration, Catholics, blacks, Jews, Communists, bootleggers, gambling, and discussion of birth control

Pro-WASP

KKK Targets
demise of the kkk
Demise of the KKK
  • 1925—Stephenson jailed for 2nd degree murder
  • Embezzlement of Klan officials
kkk impact
KKK Impact
  • Race riots of 1919 (Charleston, Chicago)
  • Anti-immigration legislation
    • 1921 Immigration Act: ended open immigration w/ a limit and quota system
    • 1924 National Origins Act: reduced # of immigrants (esp. eastern/southern Europe); banned Asians completely
scopes trial aka monkey trial
Scopes Trial (aka Monkey Trial)
  • Fundamentalists:
    • Believed teaching Darwinism evolution was destroying faith in God and Bible and causing a breakdown in America’s youth
    • Numerous attempts to pass laws prohibiting the teaching of evolution in public schools
  • 1925—Dayton, TN—HS bio teacher John Scopes indicted for teaching evolution, thus breaking a TN law banning the teaching of the evolution
scopes trial part two
Scopes Trial…Part Two
  • ACLU wanted to fight the Butler Law, Scopes volunteered; huge public following of the case via radio
  • Scopes was defended by Clarence Darrow
  • Prosecutor was William Jennings Bryan
  • Darrow placed fundamentalism on trial
  • VERDICT: Scopes found guilty and fined $100
  • IMPACT: Fundamentalism suffered a setback, but strong in Baptist and Church of God; WJB died a week after the trial
prohibition the 18 th amendment
Prohibition & the 18th Amendment
  • Supported by churches and women, in Midwest and South
  • Volstead Act of 1919 implemented the amendment; opposed in larger eastern cities b/c of “wet” foreign-born peoples
problems with enforcement
Problems with enforcement:
  • Federal authorities had never satisfactorily enforced a law were many were hostile to it.
  • Most drinkers ignored “dry” laws.
  • Lack of enforcement officials.
  • Alcohol could be sold by doc’s Rx & necessary for industrial uses
  • Alcohol could be manufactured in small amounts almost anywhere
    • (700 million gallons of home brew made in 1929!)
results of prohibition
Results of Prohibition:
  • Rise of organized crime:
    • Huge profits in “bootlegging”
    • Al Capone and John Dillinger; increased violence in Chicago in 1920s
    • Gov officials accepted bribes
    • Organized crime spread to other crimes
  • Rise of speakeasies
  • Disappearance of saloons
  • Many Americans became used to casually breaking the law
  • Prohibition repealed in 1933
mass consumption economy
Mass Consumption Economy
  • Glorification of business
  • Booming economy post-WWI
    • “trickle down” tax policies
    • Buying on credit
  • Industrial productivity rose 70%
  • Wages @ all-time high.
  • Electric power increased & new applicances
  • New technology: electric motors & assembly lines
  • New industries: light metals; synthetics; movies; auto industry (petroleum, steel, rubber, concrete)
1920s inventions innovations
1920s Inventions & Innovations
  • Telephoto & television (not widely available until late 1940s)
  • Medical breakthroughs
    • Iron lung (respirator)
    • Life expectancy rose from 49 to 59
  • Construction
    • Skyscrapers
    • Empire State Building
  • Chain stores became common
new workers
New Workers:
  • White Collar Workers
    • Demand of consumer products created need for advertising and sales people
  • Women entered the work force
    • Typists
    • Teachers
    • Shop clerks
    • Cashiers
    • Switchboard operators
advertising in the 1920s
Advertising in the 1920s
  • Helped find mass markets for goods
  • Used persuasion, allure & sexual suggestion
sports in the 1920s
Sports in the 1920s
  • Babe Ruth and Jack Dempsey famous due to “image making”
assembly line 101
Assembly Line 101
  • Frederick Taylor—started movement of using more efficient methods to increase production in the workforce
  • Henry Ford used it in his plant, followed by other car makers (GM and Chrysler)
    • Ford realized his workers were potential consumers; paid $5/day
    • Used the assembly line to build car in 1.5 hrs making the Model-T a staple in American life
automobile impact
Automobile Impact:
  • New “king industry” in America
  • Supporting industries such as rubber, glass, fabrics, highway construction, service stations/garages
  • Nation’s standard of living improved
  • RR industry declined b/c of cars, buses, and trucks; schools consolidated b/c of buses
  • Leisure time spent traveling
  • Sprawling suburbs
radio s impact
Radio’s Impact
  • Created a new bustling industry
  • Added to American leisure life
  • Nation more closely-knit
  • Advertising perfected as an art
  • Sports further boomed
  • Politicians used the airwaves
  • Newscasts informed millions @ once
  • Music filled the airwaves
jazz music its impact
Jazz Music & its impact
  • Pre-WWI popular in African American culture influence by old slave spirituals and folk music
  • New Orleans Dixieland Jazz— “modern jazz”; faster tempos
  • Louis Armstrong
  • Center moved from N.O. then Chicago
  • Jazz clubs popped up in American cities
harlem renaissance
Harlem Renaissance
  • Development
    • Came out of NYC neighborhood of Harlem
    • Significance: HR produced a wealth of A-A poetry, literature, art, & music that expressed the pain, sorrow, and discrimination blacks felt at this time
  • Poets & writers: Langston Hughes, Claude McKay, Zora Neale Hurston
  • Jazz: Duke Ellington & the Cotton Club
  • Marcus Garvey & “Back to Africa Movement”
need to know also
Need to know also:
  • Impact of the airplane
  • Impact of the movie industry
  • Flapper Revolution
  • Changes in working conditions
  • 1920s Literature & the “Lost Generation”
  • Architecture: Frank Lloyd Wright, Art Deco
essay questions for review
Essay Questions for Review:
  • Analyze the factors that led to a rise of “Americanism” in the U.S. during the first thee decades of the 20th century.
  • How did Americanism play out in American society during the 1920s?
  • Analyze the issues that brought modernists and traditionalists into conflict during the 1920s.
  • How did the booming economy of the 1920s alter American society?
  • How did culture (e.g. radio, movies, music & literature) reflect American society in the 1920s?