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The Roaring Twenties. Chapter 32. Political Philosophies. Radical (Socialist, Communist, or Anarchist) Conservative—keeping the status quo Reactionary—desire to move society back into a past society, usually idealized

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chapter 32

The Roaring


Chapter 32

political philosophies
Political Philosophies
  • Radical (Socialist, Communist, or Anarchist)
  • Conservative—keeping the status quo
  • Reactionary—desire to move society back into a past society, usually idealized
  • Liberal—advocating changes in society’s institutions to reflect changing conditions
  • Red Scare
    • Bolshevik Revolution in Russia sparked paranoia that communism would spread to the US.
    • Large #s of strikes occurred post-WWI
      • b/c of inflation during war
    • Progressed b/c Wilson out of country due to Treaty of Versailles, which led to Red Summer of 1919
strike one
Strike One
  • Seattle General Strike (Jan. 1919)
    • 35K shipyard workers on strike b/c of failed wage increase
    • Other workers across in Seattle joined in the strike
    • Though peaceful, conservatives feared a European-style labor takeover
    • Seattle mayor called for federal troops to head off the “anarchy of Russia”
strike two
Strike Two
  • Boston Police Strike (Sept. 1919)
    • 70% plus of B-Town’s policemen went on strike seeking wage increases & right to unionize
    • Gov. Coolidge called out the National Guard stating there was “no right to strike against public safety”
    • Gompers offered to settle strike, demanding police had no right to form a union
strike three
Strike Three
  • Palmer Raids
    • After bomb scares post-United Mine Workers of America Strike (Nov. 1919), Attorney General A. Mitchell Palmer got $500K from Congress to “tear out the radical seeds”
    • Identities of person who sent bombs never IDed—radicals, Bolsheviks & Wobblies blamed
    • Bombings included Wall Street (38 dead) and Palmer’s Washington home
palmer raids part two
Palmer Raids, Part Two
  • Teachers had to sign loyalty oath
  • “Radicals” deported to Russia; mostly anarchists
  • Jan 1920—5K suspected communists arrested in 33 cites;
    • most seized w/o warrants or just cause
    • 550 Russians deported; many US citizens
public reaction to palmer raids
Public Reaction to Palmer Raids
  • Most Americans condoned Palmer’s actions
  • Many began to question the compromising of individual rights
  • Members of state legislatures were denied seats b/c they were Socialists
  • Conservatives used the “red scare” to break the backs of fledgling unions
sacco and vanzetti
Sacco and Vanzetti
  • S & V charged & convicted of killing 2 people in a robbery in Massachusetts
  • Jury & judge probably prejudiced: S&V were Italians, atheists, anarchists, & draft dodgers
  • Radicalism became issue during the trial
s v case part two
Evidence not conclusive; many believe sentence was due to prejudice

Repeated motions for a new trial were DENIED by Judge Thayer & MSC

Thayer sentenced the men to death by electric chair

S&V Case, Part Two
  • Resurgence of KKK began in South but quickly spread to SW & Midwest
  • Total membership as high as 5 million
  • 1915 movie Birth of a Nation
  • Resembled nativist “Know-Nothings” than the anti-black terrorist organization of the 1860s
kkk targets
Opposed immigration, Catholics, blacks, Jews, Communists, bootleggers, gambling, and discussion of birth control


KKK Targets
demise of the kkk
Demise of the KKK
  • 1925—Stephenson jailed for 2nd degree murder
  • Embezzlement of Klan officials
kkk impact
KKK Impact
  • Race riots of 1919 (Charleston, Chicago)
  • Anti-immigration legislation
    • 1921 Immigration Act: ended open immigration w/ a limit and quota system
    • 1924 National Origins Act: reduced # of immigrants (esp. eastern/southern Europe); banned Asians completely
scopes trial aka monkey trial
Scopes Trial (aka Monkey Trial)
  • Fundamentalists:
    • Believed teaching Darwinism evolution was destroying faith in God and Bible and causing a breakdown in America’s youth
    • Numerous attempts to pass laws prohibiting the teaching of evolution in public schools
  • 1925—Dayton, TN—HS bio teacher John Scopes indicted for teaching evolution, thus breaking a TN law banning the teaching of the evolution
scopes trial part two
Scopes Trial…Part Two
  • ACLU wanted to fight the Butler Law, Scopes volunteered; huge public following of the case via radio
  • Scopes was defended by Clarence Darrow
  • Prosecutor was William Jennings Bryan
  • Darrow placed fundamentalism on trial
  • VERDICT: Scopes found guilty and fined $100
  • IMPACT: Fundamentalism suffered a setback, but strong in Baptist and Church of God; WJB died a week after the trial
prohibition the 18 th amendment
Prohibition & the 18th Amendment
  • Supported by churches and women, in Midwest and South
  • Volstead Act of 1919 implemented the amendment; opposed in larger eastern cities b/c of “wet” foreign-born peoples
problems with enforcement
Problems with enforcement:
  • Federal authorities had never satisfactorily enforced a law were many were hostile to it.
  • Most drinkers ignored “dry” laws.
  • Lack of enforcement officials.
  • Alcohol could be sold by doc’s Rx & necessary for industrial uses
  • Alcohol could be manufactured in small amounts almost anywhere
    • (700 million gallons of home brew made in 1929!)
results of prohibition
Results of Prohibition:
  • Rise of organized crime:
    • Huge profits in “bootlegging”
    • Al Capone and John Dillinger; increased violence in Chicago in 1920s
    • Gov officials accepted bribes
    • Organized crime spread to other crimes
  • Rise of speakeasies
  • Disappearance of saloons
  • Many Americans became used to casually breaking the law
  • Prohibition repealed in 1933
mass consumption economy
Mass Consumption Economy
  • Glorification of business
  • Booming economy post-WWI
    • “trickle down” tax policies
    • Buying on credit
  • Industrial productivity rose 70%
  • Wages @ all-time high.
  • Electric power increased & new applicances
  • New technology: electric motors & assembly lines
  • New industries: light metals; synthetics; movies; auto industry (petroleum, steel, rubber, concrete)
1920s inventions innovations
1920s Inventions & Innovations
  • Telephoto & television (not widely available until late 1940s)
  • Medical breakthroughs
    • Iron lung (respirator)
    • Life expectancy rose from 49 to 59
  • Construction
    • Skyscrapers
    • Empire State Building
  • Chain stores became common
new workers
New Workers:
  • White Collar Workers
    • Demand of consumer products created need for advertising and sales people
  • Women entered the work force
    • Typists
    • Teachers
    • Shop clerks
    • Cashiers
    • Switchboard operators
advertising in the 1920s
Advertising in the 1920s
  • Helped find mass markets for goods
  • Used persuasion, allure & sexual suggestion
sports in the 1920s
Sports in the 1920s
  • Babe Ruth and Jack Dempsey famous due to “image making”
assembly line 101
Assembly Line 101
  • Frederick Taylor—started movement of using more efficient methods to increase production in the workforce
  • Henry Ford used it in his plant, followed by other car makers (GM and Chrysler)
    • Ford realized his workers were potential consumers; paid $5/day
    • Used the assembly line to build car in 1.5 hrs making the Model-T a staple in American life
automobile impact
Automobile Impact:
  • New “king industry” in America
  • Supporting industries such as rubber, glass, fabrics, highway construction, service stations/garages
  • Nation’s standard of living improved
  • RR industry declined b/c of cars, buses, and trucks; schools consolidated b/c of buses
  • Leisure time spent traveling
  • Sprawling suburbs
radio s impact
Radio’s Impact
  • Created a new bustling industry
  • Added to American leisure life
  • Nation more closely-knit
  • Advertising perfected as an art
  • Sports further boomed
  • Politicians used the airwaves
  • Newscasts informed millions @ once
  • Music filled the airwaves
jazz music its impact
Jazz Music & its impact
  • Pre-WWI popular in African American culture influence by old slave spirituals and folk music
  • New Orleans Dixieland Jazz— “modern jazz”; faster tempos
  • Louis Armstrong
  • Center moved from N.O. then Chicago
  • Jazz clubs popped up in American cities
harlem renaissance
Harlem Renaissance
  • Development
    • Came out of NYC neighborhood of Harlem
    • Significance: HR produced a wealth of A-A poetry, literature, art, & music that expressed the pain, sorrow, and discrimination blacks felt at this time
  • Poets & writers: Langston Hughes, Claude McKay, Zora Neale Hurston
  • Jazz: Duke Ellington & the Cotton Club
  • Marcus Garvey & “Back to Africa Movement”
need to know also
Need to know also:
  • Impact of the airplane
  • Impact of the movie industry
  • Flapper Revolution
  • Changes in working conditions
  • 1920s Literature & the “Lost Generation”
  • Architecture: Frank Lloyd Wright, Art Deco
essay questions for review
Essay Questions for Review:
  • Analyze the factors that led to a rise of “Americanism” in the U.S. during the first thee decades of the 20th century.
  • How did Americanism play out in American society during the 1920s?
  • Analyze the issues that brought modernists and traditionalists into conflict during the 1920s.
  • How did the booming economy of the 1920s alter American society?
  • How did culture (e.g. radio, movies, music & literature) reflect American society in the 1920s?