The Victorian Period 1837 - 1901
Queen Victoria • 1819-1901 • Queen of Great Britain • Reigned as queen for 63 years • German descent • 9 children and 42 grandchildren • Nicknamed “Grandmother of Europe” • Made rule of social classes • Underwent the Industrial Revolution
Industrial Revolution • Late 18th and early 19th centuries • Major changes in agriculture, manufacturing, production and transportation • Started in Britain, eventually spread throughout the world • Human labor was replaced by machines • Steam power and water wheels were invented • Mass production came into use
Religion and Science (1837-1901) • The Victorian Period was concerned about their beliefs and religious views. In the early seventeenth century rationalism and science showed that some religious elements were superstitious. In the eighteenth century some of the clergy began to lose faith in anything except for the human reason. People began to question how long that the beliefs of the bibles stories and religious views would last and that science would take its place. • The scientific look upon the bible, known as Higher Criticism, made hitherto sacred book had many inconsistencies. It made stories seem fictional. For example, the story of Adam and Eve. It also showed in the nineteenth century that the development and evolution from ape to man was more logical.
Religion and Science Continued.. • With such confusion on how man kind developed people began to choose their own beliefs and renew their devotion to Christianity. Others such as, John Henry Newman, who supported the original rituals and and traditions of the church. Which led to either Anglo-Catholics or Roman Catholics. A few still remained unsure about religion and chose to become atheists and deny all beliefs of the Christian religion. • John Henry Newman: (February 21, 1801- August 11,1890) • Was a major role in the Oxford movement in bringing back Catholic views to the churches. • His studies persuaded him to become a Roman Catholic. • He wrote many books about Catholicism such as, Apologia Pro Vita Sua(1865-66) and the Grammar of Assent(1870) • He was known for his feminine nature and lack of virility.
Victorian War and Conflict • During the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries many English sailors and soldiers had built up an overseas empire called the British Empire. These groups mainly came from America, India, Africa and the Pacific. During the American Revolution of 1776-83 some of the empire had begun to split away. England did not know whether they should hang on to the colonies by force or to give them concessions and calm the restlessness of the colonies. However, this ran the risk of the colonies drifting away from the empire. Many extremists wanted to rule but many also wanted to see the colonies for good. Lord Duram reported that the commonwealth had greatly developed in Canada in 1838. Also, the act of 1867 by the British North American colonies. However, these patterns were not always followed because their was the mutiny of the Indians and the Boer wars(1880-81) and in (1899-1902). These wars showed the patterns not to be completely true. Something more than the triumph of the wars and the brute force was shown by the pageant of Imperial splendour that marked Queen Victoria’s diamond Jubilee in 1897.
During this time, it was a time of belief. Transform their lives Science became a professional career. Explore more of the world and its contents. Science
Writer • Charles Darwin formulated his theories on evolution in his 1859 book, The Origin of Species' • “Gods Image , wrong” • Why we were created the way we are. • Natural advantage • Against Church
The steam-powered factories, trains, railways and steam ships. The world was being opened up as never before you could communicate with someone across the other side of the world within minutes as the development of the electric telegraph allowed. People had a reason to believe that things would improve indefinitely. Machines
Charles Dickens 1812 - 1870
His Early Life • Born on February 7th, 1812 in Portsmouth, England • The second of eight children to John Dickens and Elizabeth née Barrow • Charles was a strong student, loved reading, poetry, singing, and theatre. • His father and the rest of his family were imprisoned for John’s debts in 1824. Charles was the only one who didn’t go, but he was forced to work. • Charles later had jobs working at a law firm, as a court reporter, and he also worked for the Morning Chronicle. • He moved out on his own in 1834, but was always there for his family when they needed him. His Birthplace
Love& Children • He fell in love with a woman named Mary Beadnell in 1830. However, her father opposed the two in their wishes of getting married. • A few years later, in 1836, he married a woman by the name of Catherine Hogarth, who was the daughter of an editor he knew. • Catherine and Charles had ten children. • He later fell in love with an actress named Ellen Ternan in 1857.
His Work • He wrote at least one short story before 1836, but it was in that year that his first novel, Sketches by Boz, was published. • From then on, he wrote many famous novels. • His works reflected his own life experiences, and the struggles of the time. • He often portrayed England as a dark, very dirty place. • Most of his work was serialized. • Charles was basically seen as a spokesperson for the poor. • He was a social campaigner and very generous.
A Christmas Carol • This piece shows the difference between social classes of the time. • Dickens wants us to sympathize with the poor. • We see his original opinion of the upper class and how it also may have changed.
Bibliography • English Poet of the Victorian period. • Famous for dramatic monologues • Born in Camberwell, South London • Atheist Principles • At age 16 he began studying at newly established London University.
Works He was noted for his mastery of dramatic monologue. Robert Browning was unsuccessful as a poet and financially dependent upon his family until he was well into adulthood. In his best works people from the past reveal their thoughts and lives as if speaking or thinking aloud. "Be sure I looked up her eyes --Happy and proud; at last I knew Porphyria worshipped me; surprise --Made my heart swell, and still it grew --While I debated what to do. That moment she was mine, mine, fair, --Perfectly pure and good; I found A thing to do, and all her hair --In one long yellow string I wound --Three times her little throat around, And strangled her. No pain felt she; --I am quite sure she felt no pain." (from 'Porphyria's Lover' in Dramatic Lyrics, 1842)