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Postwar Period. 1945- 2001. Truman & the Beginning of the Cold War. Two leading superpowers: United States & Soviet Union Major concerns: 1. survival of the belligerent countries 2.shape of the new postwar world & new political alliances Capitalism V. Communism

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postwar period

Postwar Period

1945- 2001

truman the beginning of the cold war
Truman & the Beginning of the Cold War
  • Two leading superpowers: United States & Soviet Union
  • Major concerns: 1. survival of the belligerent countries 2.shape of the new postwar world & new political alliances
  • Capitalism V. Communism
  • Power Struggle: Cold War  no actual combat
    • Hot “proxy” wars: Korea & Vietnam (fought by the U.S)
    • U.S & Russia never combatted each other.
  • U.S economy growing more dependent on EXPORTS & IMPORTS (metals)
    • 1. Open Trade
    • 2. Friends relations with nations providing metals
  • WWII actually exposed the U.S & S.U ideological differences  enemies for the next 40+ years
truman foreign policy
Truman & Foreign Policy
  • Differences between the 2 superpowers became vibrant when S.U refused to recognize Poland  U.S supported Polish government (Poland sought refuge in G.B when Hitler invaded)
  • Communist S.U took over Poland and within two years also took over Hungary and Czechoslovakia
  • Propaganda  each government portrayed the other as wanted to conquer the world for their own greedy purposes.
  • 1947: Threat of the spread of communism into Greece & Turkey  England could no longer prop-op nation  Truman asked congress for $400 million  Truman Doctrine
    • George Kennan  policy of containment (Long Telegram: sent from Germany to Washington, 1946)
    • Prevent the spread of communism & encourage the Soviets to abandon aggressive strategies

U.S Method to gain alliances with other countries  give away money

Secretary of State George Marshall, Marshall Plan  >$12million to Europe to help rebuild after war  countries became U.S allies  Offered to Eastern Europe & S.U but did not participate  Stalin saw as U.S imperialism

1949: North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO)  Canada, U.S & other Western European countries

Berlin: divided as Germany was in 1945  Western Allies planned to unify into one NON-communist country  Soviet set up the Berlin blockade (1948) Berlin Airlift (after 1 yr. S.U surrenders)  symbol of Cold War (dismantled in 1989)

Discovered that the Soviets also had an atomic bomb, detonated around the time NATO is created/ U.S joins. National Security Council Central Intelligence Agency (CIA)

Spy networks and foreign affairs advisors to the U.S President

  • Asia: Japan’s Reconstruction & Chinese Civil War
    • -U.S occupies Japan after WWII, divides it’s colonies (which included Korea)  U.S took over Pacific Islands and southern Korean & USSR took over the northern portion of Korea
    • -Japanese Constitution (General Douglas MacArthur)  democratized Japan
    • -China not so successful  20 yr. Civil War  U.S sides with Mao Zedong (fighting the communist revolutionaries)  U.S eventually pulls it’s support to Zedong  Communist take over  1/3 of world communist at this point
    • -French Indochina (Vietnam)  Truman aided the French  many not aware at this time
  • Anti-Communist paranoia spreads on the home front (Red Scare)
  • 1947: Truman orders investigation of 3 million federal employees  searching “security risks  previous associations with communists or with any “moral” weakness subject to blackmail
  • 1949: State Department official Alger Hiss  guilty of communist affiliations (communist spy)  Richard Nixon (congress) responsible for bringing him down
  • Sparks paranoia of communists within our society
  • Senator Joseph McCarthy  ruthless accusations  the “so-called” list of 200 communists working in State Dept.  U.S Army  Edward R Murrow’s TV show airing Army- McCarthy hearings  fall of McCarthyism
  • H.U.A.C (House of Un-American Affairs Committee)
  • Hollywood 10
  • Blacklists
truman s domestic policy 1948 election
Truman’s Domestic Policy & 1948 Election
  • Economy now has to mobilize back to a “peace-time” industry
  • Many businesses that produced war goods went out of business laid off employees  rise in unemployment  there was also an inflation (20%)
  • Truman offers the Fair Deal in an attempt to assist the poor and unemployed  not passed into law
  • Anti-unionism (Red Scare)  United Mine Workers went on strike  shut down energy supplies to other industries  Truman: seizure of the mines & threatens a draft to railroad strikers  Alliance formed against skyrocketing prices & frustrated about the unions  Eightieth Congress (1946)  Republicans take over congress
  • Truman alienates many voters: Civil Rights Agenda  President’s Committee on Civil Rights  goals: end to segregation, poll taxes, anti-lynching laws  issued executive order preventing discrimination for government jobs & desegregated the Army
  • Galvanizes African Americans  NAACP wins initial/ important lawsuits  Jackie Robinson (baseball)  form alliances with liberal white organizations  more political ground
  • Provokes scandalous racism  Democrats- “Dixiecrats” (South)  Strom Thurmond nominee
  • Many Democratic populations against Truman’s civil rights tendencies – labor, consumers & Southerners
  • Many believed Truman would be defeated in the 1948 election
  • Became popular with the Republicans with his harsh reactions/ responses to the labor strikes  Conservatives passed the Taft-Harley Act (Truman vetoed)  prohibited union only work environments, closed shops  restricted the right to strike, union funds for political purposes, government broad powers to intervene in strikes  On the other hand, Republicans rebuked Truman for his liberal tendencies  health care reform, civil rights for blacks, farmers, elderly
  • Recalls former congress to enact platform  Congress does not pass a single law in 2 weeks  Truman campaigns and ridicules Congress as the “do-nothings”  Truman wins re-election 1948
korean war
Korean War
  • North Korea (more than likely supported by USSR) invades South Korea  War
  • Truman decides to attempt to “reunify” Korea. U.S attack provokes China  China enters war & pushes back U.S & South Korea to border
  • Douglas MacArthur recommends a full out war with China (to overthrow the communist government)  Truman very hesitant & decides against MacArthur  MacArthur publically criticized Truman  Truman fires MacArthur
  • War drags on for 2 years and ends once Eisenhower takes Presidency (1952)
  • 1952: Dwight D. Eisenhower runs for office  war hero  very blunt although now seen as integrity
eisenhower years 1953 1961
Eisenhower Years (1953-1961)
  • Typical family life
  • Conformity  consensus of values reigns : “under God” in pledge & “In God We Trust” on dollar bill.
  • Cause and Effect: G.I Bill of Rights (1944)  education, unemployment & housing
  • Many civil rights activist picked up from the advances of the 1940s  violent resistance
  • Beatniks
  • Rock ‘n’ Roll  Elvis Presley, Little Richard, Jerry Lee Lewis & Chuck Berry
domestic politics in the 50s
Domestic Politics in the ‘50s
  • Sought to balance budget, cut federal spending and ease government regulation of business  partly successful
  • Cold War forced Ike to spend more money on the military  reduced troops but bought more powerful weaponry systems  New Look Army
  • Popularity of New Deal programs  difficult for Ike to eliminate deficit spending  current circumstances forced Ike to increase the number of Social Security recipients and their benefits
  • Interstate Highway System  initially to move soldiers & nuclear missiles around the country easier –BUT-  promoted travel and tourism (Holiday Inn & Disneyland)
  • Most important domestic issues  Race
    • 1953: Native Americans  termination  liquidate reservations & subject Native Americans to state law  plan failed
civil rights movements
Civil Rights Movements
  • Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka  NAACP  Thurgood Marshall
  • Rosa Parks  Montgomery bus boycott  MLK Jr. Montgomery Improvement Assoc.
  • MLK: encouraged peaceful organizations  Greensboro, NC students follow MLK’s advice  sit-ins  spread across the nation
u s vs communism
U.S vs. Communism
  • Ike and the Cold War policies:
    • -Secretary of State, John Foster Dulles advised Ike to change the term “containment” to “liberation” as it would make it sound more intimidating.
    • -U.S would eventually free Eastern Europe from USSR  Massive Retaliation
    • -Deterrence: fear of punishment  USSR feared massive retaliation and would prevent them from challenging the U.S  arms race  “mutually assured destruction” (MAD)
    • -Brinkmanship
    • - Domino Theory (South East Asia- Vietnam)
    • -Eisenhower Doctrine
  • Cold War tensions remained high
  • Stalin dies in 1953 & Ike hoped would improve relations with U.S
  • Nikita Khrushchev offered hope  against Stalin’s totalitarian rule  peaceful coexistence
  • Poland and Hungary rebellions  U.S & USSR back as they were during Stalin era
  • USSR explodes H-Bomb a year after the U.S did, sends first satellite- Sputnik into space  space race  National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)
  • Attempts to avoid war with China: Taiwan (U.S Ally) occupied Quemoy and Matsu close to China  Brinkmanship: Ike declares that the U.S would defend the islands and hinted on a nuclear attack on China  U.S troops stationed in the Taiwanese islands
  • In the next elections, JFK uses this issue against Ike too much $$ into defending the islands.
third world politics
Third World Politics
  • After WWII, Europe’s huge oversees empires breakup  countries in Africa, Asia and South America free from European rule
  • Did not ally themselves with either of the 2 superpowers  Third World
  • However, both superpowers very interested in bringing in third world countries into their own influence  potential markets, raw materials good area to host military bases
  • Third World Countries  Nationalism  enjoying new found freedom, not interested in any interference with the superpowers  distrust
  • HOWEVER, U.S tries to expand it’s influence other ways: offer foreign aid  Egypt, Aswan Dam  Gamal Nasser suspected this was a Western scheme  eventually turn to USSR
  • CIA covert operations  forceful strategies of increasing influence in foreign countries  newspaper briberies  overthrow Iran and Guatemalan governments to re replaced with Pro-American governments  Bay of Pigs
1960 presidential election the turbulent 60s
1960 Presidential Election & The Turbulent 60s
  • Richard Nixon V JFK
  • Eisenhower warned about new coalition that had grown from the Cold War  military might and weapons  Vietnam War
  • Turbulent ‘60s
    • -JFK  entourage of the “best and brightest”  many Americans adored JFK  offered hope for the domestic issues  New Frontier (poverty, racism & other issues)
    • - 1969: U.S bitterly divided  Vietnam War & Civil Rights
jfk foreign policy
JFK & Foreign Policy
  • Cuba  Fidel Castro (1959)  nationalizes over 3 million acres in Cuba owned by Americans (also controlled the country’s electricity & phone service)  Cuba signs trade treaty with USSR & depended on USSR for financial and military aid  Ike (while still in office imposed a partial embargo and poorly planned an invasion  JFK inherits issue  Bay of Pigs invasion (1961)
  • Berlin Wall
  • Cuban Missile Crisis  USSR missiles in Cuba  brinkmanship  blockade  forced USSR to remove missiles  behind the scenes negotiations solved the crisis  seemed as if U.S won  eventually removed our missiles from Turkey  “hot-line” for the purpose of better communication between JFK and USSR is placed
  • Peace Corps  humanitarian programs  “assimilate” Third World country cultures into anti-communists provided teachers, agricultural specialists, health care, transportation  nation building
  • Many countries did not want American-style progress
jfk domestic policy
JFK- Domestic Policy
  • Michael Harrington’s book  The Other America  Opens up JFK’s eyes (along with U.S Society with how the poor were still living)  A book does it again!
  • New Frontier  unemployment benefits, expanded Social Security, bumped up the minimum wage, aided distressed farmers
  • Women’s rights  Presidential committee 1963  remove all obstacles  Equal Pay Act (1963)
  • September 1962  JFK enforced desegregation at the University of Mississippi  asked Congress to pass the Civil Rights Act but was assassinated  LBJ was able to push through congress in 1964
  • Active period for Civil Rights Movements  Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC) , sit-ins boycotts & peaceful demonstrations 00> Congress of Racial Equality (CORE), Freedom Riders  Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC), voter registrations – Freedom Summer
  • Met with resistance  NAACP Director Medgar Evers murdered in 1963, Police brutality in Montgomery, JFK’s assassination
lbj s social agenda
LBJ’s Social Agenda
  • Took immediate action towards the Civil Rights issues
    • Civil Rights Act of 1964 BASES OF ALL DISCRIMINATION SUITS TO THIS DAY, most comprehensive piece of civil rights legislation
    • Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC)
    • Voting Rights Act of 1965
  • Great Society  LBJ’s social agenda, most sweeping change in U.S government since the New Deal  War on Poverty
    • Economic Opportunity Act  $1billion in poverty relief
    • Project Head Start  education (Sesame Street)
    • Job Corps  vocational training
    • Volunteers in Service to America (VISTA)  domestic Peace Corps
    • Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD)  federal aid to low income apt renters
civil rights movements1
Civil Rights Movements
  • 1960’s number of substantial gains  Great Society  Governmental Support
  • Supreme Court victories under Chief Justice Earl Warren  Warren Court  extremely liberal
    • Enforced voting rights for blacks
    • Withdraw congressional districts  more representation for minorities
    • Prayer prohibited in school
    • Rights of the accused  Gideon v. Wainwright  right to an attorney even if one cannot afford it  Miranda v. Arizona
  • Strict opposition  police brutality, KKK, civilians supporting movements killed
  • New Radical Activist in the black community  Malcom X (Nation of Islam)  Black Panthers  Black Power  SNCC & CORE  segregate themselves by eliminating white supporters  MLK assassinated  violence breaks out
new left feminism counterculture
New Left, Feminism & Counterculture
  • New Left-
  • Young, white, college students- particularly men, made up the “New Left”
    • 1962: Students for a Democratic Society- (SDS)  leftist political agenda
    • Port Huron Statement  Tom Hayden  manifesto; non-ideological call for participatory democracy
  • New Left: progressive groups. Called for the elimination of poverty, racism and Cold War Policies
  • University of California, Berkeley (1964)  Free Speech Movement
  • Colleges changed classes to cater to the members of the New Left
  • Did not include women  women became frustrated  second class citizens
  • Feminism –
  • 1963: Betty Friedan, The Feminine Mystique
    • Challenged society’s assumptions of acceptable women’s roles
    • Credited for restarting the women’s movement (feminist movement)
    • National Organization for Women (NOW)  fought for legislative changes (“Equal” Rights Amendment added to the constitution)
feminism continued counterculture
Feminism… Continued & Counterculture
  • Fought against discrimination in hiring, pay, college admissions and loans.
  • Reproductive rights  1965 Griswold v. Connecticut & 1973 Roe v. Wade
  • Gay Pride movements commence during this time too (1960s)  Stonewall Riots
  • Counterculture: “against mainstream”
    • Rebellion against “the establishment” (roots in 1950s)
    • Hippies  communes, long hair, ripped jeans, tie-dyed shirts, drug use, sexual revolution (designers catered to the interest of the hippies & so did record companies…)
    • Music  lyrical weapons  Bob Dylan, Jimi Hendrix, the Beatles, Rolling Stones
    • Woodstock
  • New Left, Feminists & Counterculture  huge divide in U.S society  Vietnam War
  • Other movements: Hispanics  Cesar Chavez  Table Grape Boycotts  United Farm Workers
  • Native Americans  National Indian Youth Council (NIYC, 1961)  preserving native fishing rights in the Northwest  group expands to include civil rights issues (1968)  American Indian Movement (Aim)  occupy Alcatraz  Seized the Bureau of Indian Affairs in D.C (long march from California to Washington DC  Siege at Wounded nee
u s involvement in vietnam
U.S Involvement in Vietnam
  • Truman Administration -1991: Cold War  U.S felt they had the right to intervene anywhere communism was being spread (to protect U.S interests)
  • Vietnam  huge failure  divides the country unlike ever before since the Civil War
  • Origins – Series of events: WWII  French Colony (rice, rubber & metals)  fostered resistance (Vietminh) led by Ho Chi Minh  lived in France  Treaty of Versailles (1919)  Wilson’s fourteen points (self determination)  Ignored  Japan invades Vietnam (WWII)  Vietnam and Allies united by common enemy  hoped for independence Drafted their declaration of independence (U.S & French)  U.S does not recognize independence (Bao Dai)  Vietnam & France fight war of independence (1945-1954)  U.S funds 80 % of war (in favor of France) Battle of Dien Bien Phu ends that war
  • 1954 – Geneva Accords  17th Parallel  Communist Forces get the North  “democratic” forces get the South (pounced autonomous by Diem)  Division to last only 2 yrs & free elections would be held  elections never took place  U.S breaks agreement  U.S joins forces with Ngo Dinh Diem CIA organizes raids against the North & hoped for communist retaliation  U.S forms SEATO (SouthEast Asia Treaty Organization) with G.B, France, Thailand, Pakistan, Philippines, New Zealand & Australia
  • Diem  tyrannical leader  imprisoned political enemies, persecuted Buddhist monks, closed newspapers who publically opposed him  Many southerners joined the North Vietnamese side (Vietcong)
  • U.S continued to support Diem  JFK sends in the Green Berets (advisors)  CIA helps stages a coup but assassinates Diem and his brother  JFK killed that same month  LBJ
u s involvement in vietnam 1964 68
U.S involvement in Vietnam (1964-68)
  • LBJ took office & had opportunity to withdraw
  • Advisers assured LBJ was winnable  LBJ committed to total victory
  • U.S didn’t care who ran the Vietnamese government, as long as not communist
  • U.S starts bombing Laos  N.V shipping weapons to Vietcong
  • 1964 -Reports stated N.V had attacked U.S destroyer ships @ Gulf of Tonkin  LBJ/ Gulf of Tonkin Resolution floods Vietnam with U.S troops  “Americanization”  Many men leave to escape the draft
  • Tet Offensive (1968)  Major turning point  Fighting strategies  Tigers v Elephants  U.S felt lied to (opposition)
  • My Lai Massacre  opposition grows larger and angrier
  • 1968  As a result, LBJ announces he will start making peace negotiations and that he won’t run again in upcoming elections
summer election of 1968
Summer & Election of 1968
  • Eugene McCarthy, Robert (Bobby) Kennedy an Hubert Humphrey ran for the Democratic ticket that year.
  • April 1968- MLK murdered  violence breaks out (riots) in over 150 towns  Kerner Commission “separate AND unequal”
  • June 1968- Bobby Kennedy murdered Democratic Convention in Chicago  violence  convention decides on Humphrey instead of the anti-war candidate McCarthy  many anti-war democrats decide to vote Republican
  • Richard Nixon  promises to end U.S involvement in war
  • Third Party Nominee  George Wallace (pro-segregation  support of the South)
  • Nixon and Wallace  big threat from Humphrey
  • Very close election  Nixon wins
vietnamization and d tente
“Vietnamization” and Détente
  • Vietnamization  handing the war back to South Vietnam with as little support from the U.S as possible
  • Began to withdraw troops BUT also increased bombing campaigns  Nixon was a former war vet (WWII) and believed in using military power  the U.S MUST win
  • Cambodia  airstrikes and ground attacks  root out war supplies and the Vietcong
  • 1973: Secretary of State, Henry Kissinger  Peace negations for a treaty with North Vietnam
  • Nixon’s Success: USSR  increased trade with U.S, number of arms treaties. China  U.S previously decided not to acknowledge China, Nixon travels to China and ease tensions, leverage with USSR
  • Détente  eased tensions. Countries would respect others differences
  • Nixon Doctrine (1979)  U.S would withdraw it’s troops from several overseas nations, relied on alliances with local governments to check on communism.
nixon s domestic policy
Nixon’s Domestic Policy
  • Successful with foreign Policy but not as successful with domestic  economy worsened, stagflation  90 day price and wage freeze  efforts did not produce their intended results
  • Politically: Society divided  both sides seen the other as an enemy of the American Way  Kent State University, Ohio demonstration  four protestors killed  incident is perfect example of the division of youth and middle America (older America)
  • Many continue to move to the suburbs due to the heightened crime in the urban area
  • 1972: Nixon won re-election  one of the greatest landslide victories  against Senator George McGovern  house was still Democratic
watergate nixon s resignation
Watergate & Nixon’s Resignation
  • 1971- Pentagon Papers are published  revealed numerous military miscalculations and lies the government told the U.S public  Nixon fights to prevent publication (nothing on Nixon on this tapes)  BUT afraid would destroy current credibility
  • Nixon grows more and more paranoid  investigators/ plumbers  Watergate Hotel  arrested  White House begins to cover up the scandal
  • White House Tapes – executive privilege
  • The Washington Post  Bob Woodward & Carl Bernstein (FBI  Deep Throat)
  • August 1974  Nixon resigns
  • Gerald Ford  Who had already replaced VP Spiro Agnew  pardon
gerald ford jimmy carter presidencies
Gerald Ford & Jimmy Carter Presidencies
  • Gerald Ford:
    • Selects Nelson Rockefeller as VP  first time neither President and VP elected by public
    • Not very popular/ bad credibility  pardon – deal with Nixon?  Weak economy – W.I.N  Oil embargo – O.P.E.C  inflation + unemployment  media – Saturday Night Live, Chevy Chase
  • 1976- Jimmy Carter
    • Inherits weakening economy  inflation >10%  stagflation
    • Tries to balance budget, unable to.
    • Economic issues  OPEC oil  alternatives  Department of Energy – nuclear power plants – Three Mile Island
    • High Point: Peace Agreement between Israel & Egypt
    • SALT II w. USSR  USSR invades Afghanistan  withdrawal of treaty
    • Sandinistas  supported until Sandinistas allied themselves w/ USSR & Cuba
    • Lowest Point: Iran Hostage situation
    • Born again Christian  support of the “conservative group”  1979 Jerry Falwell finds the “moral majority”  Reagan’s target
reagan g h w bush clinton g w bush 1980 2001
Reagan, G.H.W. Bush, Clinton & G.W. Bush1980-2001
  • **Neither DBQ nor FRQ (Parts B & C) deal exclusively with this periods – but expect to see multiple choice questions.
  • Ronald Reagan:
    • Due to all the events in previous decades, U.S wanted to return to a more conservative times  major change
    • Washington “outsider”  stressed positive aspects of America
    • Wins 1980 election by a landslide
    • Supply-side economics “Reaganomics”
military spending budget deficits
Military Spending & Budget Deficits
  • Reduce the size of federal government  New Federalism  shift power from national government to states
  • Increase military spending  S.D.I “Star Wars”  escalated arms race
  • Tax cuts, increased military spending  escalated federal budget deficit
foreign policy under reagan
Foreign Policy Under Reagan
  • Reagan sought to end the Cold War anyway and anywhere he could.
  • Supported anti-communist groups across the world  Grenade, Nicaragua “Contras”
  • Iran-Contra affair
  • Lebanon (240 marines killed)
  • Greatest success: U.S- USSR relations
    • Mikhail Gorbachev  perestroika (reform) & glasnost (openness)
    • USSR collapses & Fall of Berlin Wall (although happens after his presidency, it was because of his diplomatic relations with the nation.
    • After his 2nd term, still had a very high approval rating
george h w bush
George H.W Bush
  • Moral majority had spoken  1988 election  progressive liberalism was destroyed  “read my lips, no more taxes”
  • 1990 – Saddam Hussein  invades Kuwait  oil  Persian Gulf War Operation Desert Storm  U.S foreign policy would now focus on Middle East and on Human Rights