a framework for calculating the ecological footprint of air transport n.
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A FRAMEWORK FOR CALCULATING THE ECOLOGICAL FOOTPRINT OF AIR TRANSPORT PowerPoint Presentation
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A FRAMEWORK FOR CALCULATING THE ECOLOGICAL FOOTPRINT OF AIR TRANSPORT

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A FRAMEWORK FOR CALCULATING THE ECOLOGICAL FOOTPRINT OF AIR TRANSPORT

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  1. A FRAMEWORK FOR CALCULATING THE ECOLOGICAL FOOTPRINT OF AIR TRANSPORT Howard Cambridge, Stockholm Environment Institute, University of York, York, UK

  2. Outline • Context • Ecological Footprint • Footprinting Air Transport • Calculation Framework • Application Potential

  3. Boeing, 2002 Context • Global Growth ? • Demand Drivers • Impacts • Climate Change • Resource Consumption and Waste • Levels and Responsibility

  4. Ecological Footprint • Wackernagel and Rees (1996) • It is a tool to help measure and understand how much bio-productive capacity the earth has and how much of it we use. • Bio-Productive Land • Cropland and Grazing, Forestry, Fisheries, Energy, Built Land • Plus Land to Absorb Pollution • Activity Based • e.g. Tourism, Construction, Services,Transport

  5. Ecological Footprint • 2 Different Methods • Component vs Compound Approach • Looks at Bio-productive Area requirements for different activities and sums them up.

  6. Ecological Footprint • Whole Economic System • Resource Consumption • e.g. Fossil Fuels • Waste • e.g. CO2 Emissions • Impact – Ecological Footprint • Global Hectares (gha) per year

  7. Ecological Footprint • Largest percentage of Global EF from burning of fossil fuels. • Followed by utilization of cropland & pasture land. Ecological Footprint of Nations, 2004. Redefining Progress

  8. Ecological Footprint • Western Europe and North America highest EF per capita • Regional Inequalities • Fair-Earth Share • about 1.5 gha Ecological Footprint of Nations, 2004. Redefining Progress

  9. Footprinting Air Transport • 3 Main Sectors • 5 Main Components • Sources: Airlines, Airports, Passengers • Data Gathering • Spreadsheet • Software

  10. Components - Transport • Passenger Mode • Distance • Car Type • Engine Efficiency • Aircraft Type Fuel Consumption Distance Engine Efficiency • Other Transport – Baggage Trucks

  11. Components - Water • Water required for cleaning, hygiene • Water on-board aircraft • Water use in Airport • Passenger consumption • Leakage/Recycled

  12. Components - Energy • Air-side Operations • Runway lights • Radar • Stands • Baggage Handling • Land-side Operations • Check-in • Shopping • Walkways, escalators • Machinery • Entertainment • Service • Hotels

  13. Components - Waste • Airport • Aircraft • Passengers • Processing • Recycling • Incineration • Land-fill

  14. Components - Food • Airport • Aircraft • Production Location • Organic • Recycled

  15. Components - Construction • Runways, Offices • Hangars, Terminals • Transport links • Type of Material • Source of Material • Size of Building

  16. Calculation D= Direct Bio-productive land use N= Indirect (fossil fuel) land use i = component • Fuel use multiplied by energy conversion factors (co2 equivalents) • Higher global warming potential of aviation emissions. • Calculate Total (km/tonnes) for each component (i) • Transport, Water, Waste, Food, Construction

  17. Calculation • Assign to Bio-Productive Area • e.g. how much cropland required to supply tonnage of food. • Multiply each area by equivalence factors • -in order to make comparisons between areas of different productivity i.e. comparing crop land to forest areas are 'normalized' by multiplying them by equivalence factors relating to their bio-productivity.

  18. Calculation • EF for each Component • EFcomp= (EFarable+ EFpasture+ EFbuilt+ EFforests+ EFfisheries+ EFfossil/energy)comp • Total EF=Sum all Bio-Productive Areas • EFtotal = EFarable+ EFpasture+ EFbuilt+ EFforests+ EFfisheries+ EFfossil/energy • EF Expressed as: Global Hectares /Year Global Hectares /Passenger /Year

  19. Application • Set Policies which reduce fuel consumption • - improve airline profit margins • environmental benefits • reach emission reduction targets • Assessment tool for future airport expansion • - assess total impact • model different scenarios • communication tool

  20. Application • Waste Reduction Strategies • Weight Reduction • Freight Logistics • Fleet Adjustments • Passenger Modal Substitution • Renewable energy supply e.g APU • Electric/Hybrid vehicles • Air Traffic Management • Congestion

  21. Conclusion • Air transport comprises many different activities carried out by different industries and consumers. • Air travel is forecast to increase annually for the next 50 years. • This means increasing resource consumption and more waste produced. This includes greenhouse gas emissions a significant factor in climate change. • Therefore, concerns about environmental issues and sustainable development need to be assessed and addressed.

  22. Conclusion • The EF provides a method for the total impact of air transport to be assessed. • This type of assessment takes into account all activities not just the flight segment. • The EF can be used as a communication and aware -ness tool to inform passengers about the impact they make. It can leads to shifts to public transport for airport access. • The EF can be used by airports and airlines to identify operations where energy efficiency measures can be made and where resource consumption can be reduced.

  23. Future Methodology Improvement www.globalfootprintnetwork.org PhD Research Topic

  24. THANK YOU!!