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Volunteer Monitoring
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  1. Volunteer Monitoring Aquatic Macroinvertebrates

  2. Why Volunteer Water Quality Monitoring Makes Sense • Helps communities make informed decisions and improve water quality. • Captures the excitement and attention of local communities and citizens to water quality issues. • Obtains long-term data or new data on water bodies that otherwise may go unmonitored.

  3. http://www.cannontwp.org/

  4. Volunteer Stream Monitoring Procedures • Michigan Clean Water Corps (MiCorps) • “Our data show that citizens can collect samples of stream macroinvertebrates as well as determine physical/chemical characteristics of the stream on a level comparable to aquatic ecologists.” - Linda Wagenet, NY

  5. Stream Habitat Assessment • Visual assessment of stream conditions and watershed characteristics. • Assessment should include approximately 300 feet of stream length. • Provides clues to the causes of stream degradation.

  6. Instructions for Completing Stream Habitat Assessment Data Sheet • I. Stream, Team, Location Information • Site ID – assigned by MiCorps • Date – month, day, year • Time – record time when monitoring begins; 24-hr time (1:00 PM recorded at 13:00) • Location – name of road from which you access study site • Names – name and phone number of person completing datasheet, as well as names of other team members

  7. Instructions for Completing Stream Habitat Assessment Data Sheet • II. Stream and Riparian Habitat • Stream Width– take width measurements at several points in 300 foot section and indicate average width. • Stream Depth – take depth measurements at several points in 300 foot section and indicate average depth. • Stream channelized – signs of dredging, armored banks, straightened channels

  8. Instructions for Completing Stream Habitat Assessment Data Sheet • II. Stream and Riparian Habitat (cont.) • Stream Flow – general flow volume in relation to annual average flow • Dry = no standing or flowing water • Stagnant = water present but not flowing • Low = flowing water present, but flow volume considered below average for stream • Medium = water flow is average range for the stream • High = water flow is above average for the stream

  9. Instructions for Completing Stream Habitat Assessment Data Sheet • II. Stream and Riparian Habitat (cont.) • Highest Water Mark – max height to which the stream water level rises at the site, based on visible evidence present; distance above the present water level.

  10. Overhanging Vegetation Pool Large Rocks Large Woody Debris Riffle Rooted Aquatic Vegetation Undercut Bank

  11. Slightly Turbid Oily Sheen Foam

  12. Instructions for Completing Stream Habitat Assessment Data Sheet • II. Stream and Riparian Habitat (cont.) • Substrate – material that makes up the bottom of the stream; percentages should add up to 100% • Bank Stability and Erosion – erosion may occur as a result of natural flow, or may be caused by human activities

  13. Instructions for Completing Stream Habitat Assessment Data Sheet • II. Stream and Riparian Habitat (cont.) • Plant Community • Estimate % of stream covered by overhanging vegetation • Plants in stream: • Algae on surfaces of rocks or plants • Filamentous Algae – algae that appear stringy or ropy strands • Macrophytes – plants that can be seen with microscope • Plants on the bank/riparian zone – within the first 20 ft. or so of the stream edge

  14. Instructions for Completing Stream Habitat Assessment Data Sheet • II. Stream and Riparian Habitat (cont.) • Riparian Zone – average or most representative vegetated area that surrounds the stream Poor Excellent

  15. Instructions for Completing Stream Habitat Assessment Data Sheet • III. Sources of Degradation • Evaluate importance of potential sources in terms of pollutant inputs • Severity Ranking – for each source evaluate how severe the pollutant loading is (magnitude or quantity of pollutants likely to be delivered to the stream)

  16. Instructions for Completing Stream Habitat Assessment Data Sheet • Site Sketch • Draw a sketch of the 300 foot study site from a bird’s eye view. • Include enough detail that someone unfamiliar with the site could easily find it again.

  17. GREAT JOB! Stream Habitat Assessment Complete!

  18. Macroinvertebrate Sampling Procedure • Macroinvertebrates indicate the ecological condition of the stream. • Macroinvertebrate data used to calculate the MiCorps Stream Quality Index, which provides summary of stream conditions.

  19. What is a Macroinvertebrate? • Animals without backbones that are larger than ½ mm. • These animals live on rocks, logs, sediment, debris, and aquatic plants. • Important part of the food chain, especially for fish.

  20. Why macroinvertebrates are good indicators of water quality • Indicates local conditions • Respond quickly to stress • Easy to sample • Long history of use

  21. Stream Macroinvertebrate Datasheet • Stream Location • Stream Name – name found on U.S. Geological Survey topographic map for the area • Location – name of road for which you access the study site • Date – month, day, year • Start Time • Major Watershed – Bear Creek & HUC Code • Latitude and Longitude

  22. Stream Macroinvertebrate Datasheet • Monitoring Team • Name of person completing sheet • Name of person doing in-stream macroinvertebrate collecting • Other team members participating in assessment

  23. Stream Macroinvertebrate Datasheet • Stream Conditions • Average water depth – taken from Stream Habitat Assessment Sheet • Siltation – silt that settles on gravel, cobble, and woody debris in the main channel • Embeddedness – extent to which gravel, cobble, or boulders are surrounded or covered by fine materials (sand and silt). • Fish and wildlife – frogs, turtles, ducks, etc.

  24. Stream Macroinvertebrate Datasheet • Macroinvertebrate Collection • Generally 45minutes in small stream and up to 1 hour at large river site. • Habitats sampled using a dip net (D-net) and/or hand picking (forceps). • Collecting should begin at downstream end of the stream reach and work upstream.

  25. Stream Macroinvertebrate Datasheet • Macroinvertebrate Collection (cont.) • Sample a number of times at each habitat. • BE AGGRESIVE • All organisms* collected should be place in tray and place macroinvertebrates into jars of later identification.

  26. Stream Macroinvertebrate Datasheet • Riffles • Sample at fast part of riffle and slow part of riffle. • Do a lil’ dance!!! • Can hand pick off of rocks. Riffle

  27. Stream Macroinvertebrate Datasheet • Pools • Scoop some sediment in your net. • Find soft bottom areas that contain silt since it is more productive habitat than just sand. Pool

  28. Stream Macroinvertebrate Datasheet • Undercut bank/overhanging vegetation • Jab net into undercut bank. • For overhanging vegetation, put net under the bank at base of plants – shake vegetation using your net trying to shake insects off. Overhanging Vegetation Undercut Bank

  29. Stream Macroinvertebrate Datasheet • Aquatic Plants • Keep net opening pointed upstream and move net through vegetation trying to shake vegetation. • Use your hands to agitate vegetation and dislodge insects into net. Rooted Aquatic Vegetation

  30. Stream Macroinvertebrate Datasheet • Cobbles/Submerged Wood • Small logs and rocks can be pulled out of water to search for insects • Logs – be sure to check under bark • Rocks – caddisfly homes often look like small piles of sticks or clumps of gravel attached to rocks. Large Rocks Large Woody Debris

  31. Stream Macroinvertebrate Datasheet • Runs • Somewhat smoothly flowing segment of stream. • Sample with D-net, skimming along bottom. Run

  32. Stream Macroinvertebrate Datasheet • Stream Margin • Refers to sides of stream (undercut bank, overhanging vegetation, etc.) • Leaf Packs • Look for decomposing leaf pack. • Use hands and forceps. Leafpacks

  33. Identification and Assessment

  34. Shells • Single Shell • Pouch Snail • Spiral shell with opening usually on left side • Does not have a plate-like covering over the shell opening • Group 3: Tolerant

  35. Shells • Single Shell • Gilled Snail • Spiral shell with opening usually on right side • Plate-like covering over the shell opening • Group 1: Sensitive

  36. Shells • Double Shell • Clams • Group 2: Somewhat-Sensitive

  37. No Shells • No Legs • With Tentacles, Brushes, or “Tails” • Water Snipe Fly Larva • Two fringed “tails” • Group 1: Sensitive

  38. No Shells • No Legs • With Tentacles, Brushes, or “Tails” • Crane Fly Larvae • white or grey with tentacles • Group 2: Somewhat-Sensitive

  39. No Shells • No Legs • With Tentacles, Brushes, or “Tails” • Midge • Small and thin • Colors vary brown, green, red • Group 3: Tolerant

  40. No Shells • No Legs • With Tentacles, Brushes, or “Tails” • Blackfly Larvae • Look like bowling pins, usually black in color • Group 2: Somewhat-Sensitive

  41. No Shells • No Legs • With Tentacles, Brushes, or “Tails” • Other True Flies • Never possess true (jointed) legs, though they may have several prolegs. • Group 3: Tolerant

  42. Other True Flies… Already Seen…

  43. No Shells • No Legs • Worm-Like • Leech • Flattened lengthwise • Sucker • Group 3: Tolerant

  44. No Shells • No Legs • Worm-Like • Aquatic Worms • Segmented • Resemble earth worms • Group 3: Tolerant

  45. No Shells • Legs • 10+ Legs • Crayfish • Resemble miniature “lobsters” • Pair of pinchers • Group 2: Somewhat-Sensitive

  46. No Shells • Legs • 10+ Legs • Scud • Flattened sides and hump back • Resembles shrimp • Swims on side • Group 2: Somewhat-Sensitive

  47. No Shells • Legs • 10+ Legs • Sowbug • Walks on bottom • Resembles potato bug • Group 2: Somewhat-Sensitive

  48. No Shells • Legs • Three Pairs of Legs • Wings • Beetle-like, wings hard • Beetle Adults • Group 2: Somewhat-Sensitive

  49. No Shells • Legs • Three Pairs of Legs • Wings • Leathery wings • True Bugs • Sucking mouthparts • Group 3: Tolerant

  50. No Shells • Legs • Three Pairs of Legs • No Wings • No Obvious Tails • Beetle Larvae • Generally well sclerotized • Group 2: Somewhat-Sensitive