The cognitive theory Group members: Benjamin Salam Jennifer Coy Anita Che Myra Salam Romelia Ico Juana Chub
outline • Cognitive Theory • Cognitive Dissonance • Goal Setting • Unconscious Motivation • Cognitive Evaluation Theory
Cognitive theory • What is Cognitive theory? • Cognitive theory is concern with the development of a person’s thought processes. • It looks at how these thought influence how we understand and interact with the world. • Cognitive development involves changes in cognitive process and abilities.
Cognitive Theory Cont’ • Early cognitive development involves processes based upon actions and later progresses into changes in mental operations. • Foremost Cognitive thinker was Jean Piaget. • Was born in Switzerland in 1896. He received his doctoral degree at age 22.
Cont’ • Began a career that would have a profound impact on both psychology and education. • He developed an interest in the intellectual development of children. • Piaget’s stage theory describes the cognitive development of children.
Cognitive Dissonance • What is Cognitive Dissonance? Cognitive Dissonance is a term used to describe the feeling of discomfort that results from holding two conflicting beliefs. • Example: Consider a situation in which a woman who values financial security is in a relationship with a man who is financially irresponsible. • The conflict: It is important for her to be financially secure. She is dating a man who is financially unstable.
Continuation • How to reduce cognitive dissonance? • Focus on more supportive beliefs that outweigh the dissonant belief or behavior. • Reduce the importance of the conflicting belief • Change the conflicting belief so that it is consistent with other beliefs or behaviors.
continuation • Why is Cognitive Dissonance important? It plays a role in many value judgments, decisions and evaluations. Becoming aware of how conflicting beliefs impact the decision-making process is a great way to improve your ability to make faster and more accurate choices.
Unconscious motivation • What is Unconscious Motivation? Unconscious motivation refers to hidden and unknown desires that are the real reasons for things that people do. • Sigmund Freud who said that the mind is like an iceberg, and that only a small part is revealed to conscious awareness, while the bigger, deeper reasons for our actions lie beneath the surface.
continuation • Freud believed that the human mind consists of a tiny, conscious part that is available for direct observation and a much larger subconscious portion that plays an even more important role in determining behavior. • The term "Freudian slip" or “the slip of the tongue” refers to the expression of these unconscious impulses.
continuation • Example: "Bad to meet you" instead of the usual "Glad to meet you" may be revealing true feelings. • Abraham Maslow…… • Examples of unconscious motivation: 1. Obese people are not actually hungry for food but for attention and love. Eating is only a self-protective response to lack of attention. 2. When someone is unable to stay in a long- term relationship and always finds a reason to break off his relationships.
Cognitive Evaluation Theory What is CET? is a theory in Psychology that is designed to explain the effects of external consequences on internal motivation. Specifically, CET is a sub-theory of Self-Determination Theory that focus on competenceand autonomy while examining how intrinsic motivation is affected by external forces.
CET • Example • If you tell me that I have to run for President, I will not exactly throw my heart into the job. If, however, you tell me how the local council is looking for someone like me, who wants to help in local schools, then I'll be there before you have finished the sentence!
CET • Implications of Cognitive Evaluation Theory
references • Atkinson, Rita L., Richard C. Atkinson, Edward E. Smith, and Ernest R. Hilgard. Introduction to Psychology. 9th ed. San Diego: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1987. • Clark, David Stafford. What Freud Really Said. New York: Schocken Books, 1965. • Gale Encyclopedia of Psychology, 2nd ed. Gale Group, 2001. • Atherton J S (2011) Learning and Teaching; Cognitive Dissonance and learning [On-line: UK] retrieved 20 June 2011 from http://www.learningandteaching.info/learning/dissonance.htm