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A Perspective on Community Development. Steve Turkoski 4/24/2013. Context and Relationships Source of Wealth Community-Ties that bind/Hierarchy of areas Impact of MSA’s Standard of Living Levels of Planning Significance of Education Regional Flow of Money. Context.

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Context and Relationships

  • Source of Wealth
  • Community-Ties that bind/Hierarchy of areas
  • Impact of MSA’s
  • Standard of Living
  • Levels of Planning
  • Significance of Education
  • Regional Flow of Money
http www law cornell edu uscode text 42 3121


42 USC § 3121 - Findings and declarations

(a) Findings

Congress finds that—

(1)there continue to be areas of the United States experiencing chronic high unemployment, underemployment, outmigration, and low per capita incomes, as well as areas facing sudden and severe economic dislocations because of structural economic changes, changing trade patterns, certain Federal actions (including environmental requirements that result in the removal of economic activities from a locality), and natural disasters;

(2)economic growth in the States, cities, and rural areas of the United States is produced by expanding economic opportunities, expanding free enterprise through trade, developing and strengthening public infrastructure, and creating a climate for job creation and business development;

(3)the goal of Federal economic development programs is to raise the standard of living for all citizens and increase the wealth and overall rate of growth of the economy by encouraging communities to develop a more competitive and diversified economic base by—

(A)creating an environment that promotes economic activity by improving and expanding public infrastructure;

(B)promoting job creation through increased innovation, productivity, and entrepreneurship; and

(C)empowering local and regional communities experiencing chronic high unemployment and low per capita income to develop private sector business and attract increased private sector capital investment;

(4)while economic development is an inherently local process, the Federal Government should work in partnership with public and private State, regional, tribal, and local organizations to maximize the impact of existing resources and enable regions, communities, and citizens to participate more fully in the American dream and national prosperity;

http www law cornell edu uscode text 42 5301


42 USC § 5301 - Congressional findings and declaration of purpose

(a) Critical social, economic, and environmental problems facing Nation’s urban communities

The Congress finds and declares that the Nation’s cities, towns, and smaller urban communities face critical social, economic, and environmental problems arising in significant measure from—

(1)the growth of population in metropolitan and other urban areas, and the concentration of persons of lower income in central cities;

(2)inadequate public and private investment and reinvestment in housing and other physical facilities, and related public and social services, resulting in the growth and persistence of urban slums and blight and the marked deterioration of the quality of the urban environment; and

(3)increasing energy costs which have seriously undermined the quality and overall effectiveness of local community and housing development activities


Community Development-“a comprehensive process for managing community change that involves citizens in a dialog to decide what must be done and then involves them in doing it.”

“Critical issues addressed in the CD process include: job and economic development (business attraction, expansion, and retention, and new business development); education and workforce development; infrastructure development and improvement; quality of life, culture and recreation; social issues such as housing, crime, teen pregnancy and substance abuse; leadership development; quality of governmental services; community image and marketing; and tourism development” Emphasis added. Community Development Handbook, Chapter 1, Page 2.


Economic Development-The main goal of economic development is improving the economic well- being of a community through efforts that entail job creation, job retention, tax base enhancements and quality of life. As there is no single definition for economic development, there is no single strategy, policy or program for achieving successful economic development. Communities differ in their geographic and political strengths and weaknesses. Each community therefore, will have a unique set of challenges for economic development. Emphasis added. From the International Economic Development Council (IEDC) web site:





Workforce Development-“Workforce development” is an essential component of community economic development in any economic climate, and certainly even more critical during the financial crises we’re experiencing today. Generally speaking, the term has come to describe a relatively wide range of activities, policies and programs employed by geographies to create, sustain and retain a viable workforce that can support current and future business and industry. Beyond this general understanding, it is difficult to gain a consensus as to the definition of workforce development, perhaps because each user of the term approaches it from a different perspective. Emphasis added.http://www.stlouisfed.org/publications/br/articles/?id=1953


Leadership Development- "an intentional effort to provide leaders and emerging leaders with opportunities to learn, grow and change." Its purpose is "to produce individuals over time with the skills to function effectively within the organization." http://www.hillconsultinggroup.org/assets/pdfs/articles/essentials-lead-dev.pdf

standard of living
Standard of Living
  • Standard of Living-the necessities, comforts, and luxuries enjoyed or aspired to by an individual or group. http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/standard%20of%20living
  • Quality of Life-The term quality of life (QOL) references the general well-being of individuals and societies. The term is used in a wide range of contexts, including the fields of international development, healthcare, and politics. Quality of life should not be confused with the concept of standard of living, which is based primarily on income. Instead, standard indicators of the quality of life include not only wealth and employment, but also the built environment, physical and mental health, education, recreation and leisure time, and social belonging. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Quality_of_life
http www wpri info wp content uploads 2010 07 community development2 pdf
calvert henderson quality of life indicators
Calvert-Henderson Quality of Life Indicators
  • Education
  • Employment
  • Energy
  • Environmental
  • Health
  • Human Rights
  • Income
  • Infrastructure
  • National Security
  • Public Safety
  • Re-Creation
  • Shelter
creative class
Creative Class


legal hierarchy
Legal Hierarchy
  • Dillon’s Rule or Home Rule
  • Growth Management
tiebout s hypothosis
  • The notion that people relocate from one political jurisdiction to another in search of a more preferred package of government taxes and spending. This hypothesis suggests that people "shop" for compatible government activity in the same way they might shop for a car, a house, or a flavor of ice cream. The Tiebout hypothesis indicates that people have two methods of "voting" on government activity -- one is at the ballot box the other is with their feet by seeking a more preferred location

From 2000 to 2010, the population of Alabama grew by 332,636, while 31 counties lost population. In 2010 74.8% of the state GDP was generated in the MSAs, and 73.4% of the state workforce was in the 11 MSAs.



A Quantitative Analysis of Human Capital as an Economic Development Tool for the



Submitted to NorthcentralUniversity

Graduate Faculty of the School of Business and Technology Management

in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY


Bethany Parker Mullin

Prescott Valley, Arizona

October 2010

rostow s stages of growth
Rostow’s Stages of Growth
  • Traditional Society-subsistence agriculture and hunting
  • Preconditions for take-commercial agriculture, investment in production
  • Take-off-manufactured goods for export and consumption
  • Drive to Maturity-diversification, development of transportation infrastructure
  • Age of high mass consumption-industrial base dominates, populace have disposable income


u s code title 20 chapter 48 section 3401
U.S. Code Title 20, Chapter 48, Section 3401
  • Education is fundamental to the development of individual citizens and progress of the Nation.
  • There is a continuing need to ensure equal access for all Americans to educational opportunities of a high quality, and such educational opportunities should not be denied because of race, creed, color, national origin, or sex.
  • Parents have the primary responsibility for the education of their children, and the States, localities, and private institutions have the primary responsibility for supporting that parental role.

Estimated Dothan Daytime Population in 2011=131,000 based on employment inflow and ratio of Dothan per capita sales to state per capita sales. In 2007, the average state retail sale per capita was $12,364. For the U.S. it was $12,990.