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Return on Investment in International Recruitment: A Qualitative Study NAFSA Conference | Minneapolis | 31 May 2007 PowerPoint Presentation
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Return on Investment in International Recruitment: A Qualitative Study NAFSA Conference | Minneapolis | 31 May 2007
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  1. Session Chair / Co-Presenter: Richard Yam, International Student Advisor University of Massachusetts – Amherst ryam@ipo.umass.edu Co-Presenters: Cheryl Darrup-Boychuck, C.I.E.O. USjournal.com, LLC cheryl@USjournal.com Ted McKown, Director of International Admissions Kent State University, Ohio tmckown@kent.edu Return on Investment in International Recruitment: A Qualitative StudyNAFSA Conference | Minneapolis | 31 May 2007 Measuring ROI, 31 May 2007

  2. The challenges posed by the events of 9/11 changed the world, and international recruitment as we know it. The 9/11 Effect: Declining number of international students Slowing enrollment Perspectives of visa policy Why study ROI? Why now? Measuring ROI, 31 May 2007

  3. 危 = danger 機 = opportunity Crisis in Chinese Measuring ROI, 31 May 2007

  4. International Student Enrollment Trends, 1955 through 2006 Measuring ROI, 31 May 2007

  5. Measuring ROI, 31 May 2007

  6. Global Competitiveness: Implications for the Nation’s Higher Education System Sample Recommendations: Collecting qualitative data that could provide valuable context for quantitative data. Developing uniform, consensus-based social and economic indicators of U.S. higher education’s competitiveness. GAO Report, January 2007(Government Accountability Office) Measuring ROI, 31 May 2007

  7. NAFSA: International Enrollment Management Survey (Jan ‘07) ACE: Measuring Internationalization Survey (‘01, ‘03) Noel–Levitz: National Enrollment Management Study (‘04) Cost of Recruiting Report (‘05) Reza, Corriveau, Gogerty, Blanchford, and Yam: International Recruitment Effectiveness Survey (‘06), presented in Montreal Limited Research Available in Measuring Return on Investment Measuring ROI, 31 May 2007

  8. Most Effective Recruiting Activities: Merit Scholarships International Brochures Interviews Articulation Agreements Express Mail of Acceptance Letters Independent Travel (Fall) Small Group / Tour Travel (Fall) Information Sessions Highlights of the 2006 Study: A Quantitative Approach Measuring ROI, 31 May 2007

  9. Please provide the “total admission budget” dollar amount from which we will determine average costs based on your responses to questions. a. Number of completed applications ___ b. Number of full-time first year, degree seeking students ___ c. Number of full-time first year, degree-seeking students who enrolled ___ NACAC Admission Trends Survey, 2005 Measuring ROI, 31 May 2007

  10. Which of the following were included in the calculation of your institution’s “total admission budget”? ___ Admission staff salaries ___ Admission staff benefits ___ Staff travel expenses for recruitment ___ Expenses for participation in college fairs and other recruitment events ___ Publication expenses ___ Payments made to third party contractors for admission or recruitment services ___ Institutional financial aid ___ Other (advertising, supplies, postage…) NACAC Admission TrendsSurvey 2005 (continued) Measuring ROI, 31 May 2007

  11. NACAC Admission Trends Survey, 2005 (Average cost per enrolled student, based on domestic recruitment) $2,167 = Private institutions $1,753 = Overall average $667 = Public institutions Studying ROI: A Domestic Perspective Measuring ROI, 31 May 2007

  12. NACAC Admissions Trends, 2005based on Campus Selectivity Measuring ROI, 31 May 2007

  13. NACAC Admissions Trends, 2005 Measuring ROI, 31 May 2007

  14. Measurement Myopia U.S. News and World Report Controversy Administrators demand numerical justification for recruitment expenses Corporatization of U.S. higher education: Dean of Admission --> V.P. of Enrollment Management Current State of Studying International Recruitment / ROI Measuring ROI, 31 May 2007

  15. Initial Investment vs Subsequent Profits Recruiting Expenses vs Profits, where Profits = Tuition – Cost of Instruction + Expected Donations Flaw: Tuition < Cost of Instruction, so Profits are usually negative Studying ROI:Corporate World vs Higher Education Measuring ROI, 31 May 2007

  16. Estimate Admissions Yield from recruiting in different countries or regions Yield = Number of newly-enrolled students per dollar of recruitment expenses Current Trends in Studying ROI / International Student Recruitment Measuring ROI, 31 May 2007

  17. Evolution from Enrollment Funnelto Admissions Cylinder Measuring ROI, 31 May 2007

  18. Survey the prospective students, to eliminate any bias of the recruiters Linear Regression: Predict a dependent variable (likelihood of enrolling) based on several independent variables, such as the different types of recruitment Topic for a Thesis? Securing Pure Data: The Perspective of a Statistician Measuring ROI, 31 May 2007

  19. Multivariate Likelihood Function to Predict Customer Behavior Measuring ROI, 31 May 2007

  20. In-depth Interviews -- 1 to 1-1/2 hours each Interview Topics -- Plans, implementation, evaluation Sampling -- Open Doors, successful or challenging institutions, availability Design of the 2007 Qualitative Study on Measuring ROI Measuring ROI, 31 May 2007

  21. I find it tough to justify putting other projects aside to be involved in this one… Frankly, you may find that people who have 2 to 3 hours to devote to this may not be the most effective recruiters. As such, your sample (and study) may be at risk… The 2007 Study: Comments from a colleague who declined to participate Measuring ROI, 31 May 2007

  22. 2 Specialized Institutions 3 Language Institutes 2 Community Colleges 2 Baccalaureate Institutions 3 Masters Institutions 5 Doctoral / Research Institutions 2 Boarding / Prep Schools Profile of 19 Participating Schools:A Diverse Representation in the U.S. Measuring ROI, 31 May 2007

  23. Geographic Representation of18 Participating Schools Measuring ROI, 31 May 2007

  24. 322 total years in international education Average of 15 years in the industry 11 male and 10 female participants 14 Directors or Vice Presidents - Institutional Advancement - Enrollment Management 3 Associate Directors 3 Marketing Coordinators or Recruiters 1 International Student Advisor Profile of 21 Individual Participants Measuring ROI, 31 May 2007

  25. Profile of 21 Individual Participants:Years in International Education Measuring ROI, 31 May 2007

  26. Realistic / Pragmatic: Know how Quantifiable / Tangible: Count inquiries, applications, deposits, enrollments, attrition, retention, graduation, alumni Philosophical: Know why Big Picture / Intangible: Value judgments in determining how and where to invest, based on institution’s mission of internationalization Results of the 2007 Study: Attitudes toward ROI Measuring ROI, 31 May 2007

  27. Types of Investment: Infrastructure / Staffing Travel (Domestic and Overseas) Financial Aid / Scholarships Long-term Prospects Agents / Commission-based Options Online / Print Promotions Postage / Mailing Lists Special Scenarios / Emerging Markets Targeted Yield Activities Results of the 2007 ROI Study: Defining Return on Investment Measuring ROI, 31 May 2007

  28. Responsibility for International Recruitment Enrollment Management International Student Services International Affairs / Programs Other Support Offices Holistic approaches throughout the infrastructure seem more effective, when recruitment is integrated to cultivate the student’s entire experience. Types of Investment: Infrastructure / Staffing Measuring ROI, 31 May 2007

  29. Overseas Travel Group Tours / Large Public Events Small Tours / Targeted Private Events Individual / One-on-One Visits Domestic Travel Embassy Visits (generated highest ROI for one of our participants) Conferences / Agent Workshops Types of Investment: Travel (Overseas and Domestic) Measuring ROI, 31 May 2007

  30. Most colleagues have limited funds to disburse, so they’re getting more creative: $50 in tuition reduction for referrals Special Pricing, i.e., fees are waived if MBA students pay tuition in advance Re-packaging existing programs: A price tag of $19,985. looks better than $20,015. Work more closely with grad schools on assistantships for international students Types of Investment: Financial Aid / Scholarships Measuring ROI, 31 May 2007

  31. Projects that don’t pay off immediately, sometimes due to cultural issues Articulation agreements “Twinning” Joint Degree Programs Sister Schools Overseas Campuses “We’re establishing a pipeline for supplying students over several years.” Types of Investment: Long-Term Prospects Measuring ROI, 31 May 2007

  32. Very little middle-ground: Love / Hate Agent-only access via .edu domains Private language schools: More likely to engage agents than public institutions Institutions that are more transparent (i.e., fewer layers of bureaucracy) seemed better equipped to use agents The initial cost of engaging agents must be greater than zero (i.e., preparing for and maintaining a successful relationship) Types of Investment: Agents / Commission-based Options Measuring ROI, 31 May 2007

  33. Interviewer: How did you find out about us? Student: In a magazine. Interviewer: Which one? In the one that cost me $100 or the one that cost $1,000? Conclusion: Difficult to track accurately ---------------------------------------------------- Technology allows for better tracking -- One participant is hiring a Director of Electronic Marketing, specifically for international student recruitment Types of Investment: Online / Print Promotions Measuring ROI, 31 May 2007

  34. Express Mail I-20 / Letters of Acceptance Few purchased names and addresses Few mentioned sending brochures to -- EducationUSA Advising Centers -- U.S. Embassies and Consular Offices -- International High Schools -- American Schools Overseas Types of Investment: Postage / Mailing Lists Measuring ROI, 31 May 2007

  35. Smaller, private schools seemed more willing to experiment in emerging markets; diversity was one of their primary goals Language schools seemed more interested in the numbers of students recruited, rather than diversity, so they tend to stick with the top sending countries Other successful recruitment plans take advantage of unique situations that percolate via global involvement from the campus’ academic departments Types of Investment: Special Scenarios / Emerging Markets Measuring ROI, 31 May 2007

  36. Connect prospects and / or parents with campus-related people with common interests (language, home country, major) -- Phone calls / Skype -- eCorrespondence (eMail, chat, blog…) Hosting the influencers on campus -- Coordinated campus tours -- Various summer camps Engage Alumni Networks / Receptions Plan to “Respond on Demand” Types of Investment: Other Targeted Yield Activities Measuring ROI, 31 May 2007

  37. Characteristics of Successful International Recruitment Programs • Institutional Commitment / Mission • Organizational Infrastructure • Travel (Overseas and Domestic) • Emphasize both Recruiting and Yield Activities to complement each other • Emphasize Long-term Prospects • Financial Aid / Merit Scholarship / Pricing • Use Agents Prudently • Explore Emerging Markets • Determine Quality and Quantity Returns Measuring ROI, 31 May 2007

  38. Recommendations for Future Studies • Concentrate on Specific Subsets: • Language Schools • Graduate Schools (MBA, etc.) • International Student Athletes • Conduct Industry-Wide Surveys: • Cost-to-Recruit Survey • Factors to Enroll • Interview Prospective Students • Develop a Linear Regression Model Measuring ROI, 31 May 2007

  39. Where do we go from here?There’s no magic formula (yet). Continue the ROI conversation via NAFSA’s Marketing / Recruiting Network: • Go to http://www.nafsa.org/ • Click Knowledge Community Networks and Resources on the left • Click Recruitment, Admissions, and Preparation on the left • Click Marketing and Recruiting on the left • Click Discussion Forums on the left • Click Measuring ROI and contribute! Measuring ROI, 31 May 2007

  40. Session Chair / Co-Presenter: Richard Yam, International Student Advisor University of Massachusetts – Amherst ryam@ipo.umass.edu Co-Presenters: Cheryl Darrup-Boychuck, C.I.E.O. USjournal.com, LLC cheryl@USjournal.com Ted McKown, Director of International Admissions Kent State University, Ohio tmckown@kent.edu Return on Investment in International Recruitment: A Qualitative StudyNAFSA Conference | Minneapolis | 31 May 2007 Measuring ROI, 31 May 2007