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Ovine obstetrics. Embriology (Foetal membranes). Embryology. Oocyte: 16-24 h Spermatozoa 30-48 h Two-cell stage Day 1 Eight-cell stage Day 2,5. Embryology. Morula (8-16 cells) Day 3 (uterus) Blastocyst Days 6 to 7 Elongation Days 11 to 16 Early placentation Days 14 to 18.

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ovine obstetrics

Ovine obstetrics

Embriology

(Foetal membranes)

embryology
Embryology
  • Oocyte: 16-24 h
  • Spermatozoa 30-48 h
  • Two-cell stage Day 1
  • Eight-cell stage Day 2,5
embryology1
Embryology
  • Morula (8-16 cells) Day 3 (uterus)
  • Blastocyst Days 6 to 7
  • Elongation Days 11 to 16
  • Early placentation Days 14 to 18
embriology
Embriology

Senger, 2006

embryology2
Embryology
  • Interferon tau(Ovine trophoblast protein 1): Day 12
    • antiviral, immunosuppressive, antiproliferative and antiluteolytic activity (stabilize P4R and/or E2ROxytocin Rno PGFCLG
interferon tau
Interferon-tau

Senger, 2006

embryology3
Embryology
  • Intrauterinemigration
  • Binucleategiantcells: PSPB, PAG
embryology4
Embryology
  • Semiplacenta multiplex (cotilyca)
  • Epitheliochorialis (syndesmochorialis) placenta
  • Placenta dependens: Day 50
embryology5
Embryology
  • Termination of pregnancy: no from Day 50
    • ovariectomia
    • PGF2a
duration of pregnancy
Duration of pregnancy
  • Days 145 to 155
use of a harness and crayon on the ram
Use of a harness and crayon on the ram
  • The color of the crayon: changing every 14 to 16 days
  • Interpretation:
    • very lights marks (can be undetected)
    • not all ewes are pregnant
balottment and subjective external examination
Balottment and subjective external examination
  • 12 – 24 h fasting
  • Days 90 to 130 of pregnancy: 80 to 95% accurate.
  • The number of fetuses cannot be determined accurately, this limits its usefulness.
rectal abdominal palpation
Rectal abdominal palpation
  • lubricated glass rod (1,5 cm and 50 cm)
  • fasting: 12 h
  • 150 ewes/day
  • Days 85-100: 100%
  • Disadvantage:
    • low accuracy for fetal numbers
    • hazardous: rectal injury, abortion
vaginal biopsy
Vaginal biopsy
  • 93 to 97% accurate after 40 days of gestation
  • Nonpregnancy: 81% accurate
  • 100% after 80 days of gestation
radiology mobil units
Radiology: Mobil units
  • fetal skeleton: well classified by Day 80
    • 400-600 ewes/day
  • pregnancy diagnosis: 100%
  • Fetal number: 90 % (94-100%)
  • Disadvantage: cost and hazardous
blood progesterone assay
Blood progesterone assay
  • Pregnant: 3,7 ng/ml, non-pregnant: 1 ng/ml
  • Days 18-22: 82-84%
progesterone test
Progesterone test

Karen et al., 2001

p4 ng ml
P4 (ng/ml)

Karen et al., 2001

estrone sulphate test
Estrone sulphate test:
  • detectable around Day 70 (0.1-0.7 ng/ml)
  • steady increase until 2 days before lambing (15-50 ng/ml)
    • pregnancy: 87.9%
    • non-pregnancy: 44%
    • not reliable for prediction of fetal numbers
ovine placental lactogen
Ovine placental lactogen
  • Day 64: 97% és 100%
pag ng ml
PAG (ng/ml)

Karen et al., 2001)

accuracy of p4 and pag tests
Accuracy of P4 and PAG tests

PAG

P4

Karen et al., 2001

p regnancy specific proteins
Pregnancy-specific proteins
  • PSPB: 100% and 83% betweenDays 26 – 106
  • single: 71%, twin: 81% betweenDays 60-120
ultrasonic techniques
Ultrasonic techniques

A-mode

  • 100% after Days 60 to 70 of pregnancy
  • Nonpregnancy: 80 to 90% accurate
ultrasonic techniques1
Ultrasonic techniques

Doppler technique:

  • Days 40 – 80: 60%
  • Days > 80: > 90%
  • Rectal examination: Days 35 to 55: 97%
ultrasonic techniques2
Ultrasonic techniques

Real-time, B-mode ultrasonography

  • Day 29: 97,7%-99,1%
  • Rectal examination: from Day 25: 91%
  • Twin pregnancy: /Days 45 to 50/: 98.9%
slide46

A. Transabdominal ultrasonography (3.5 or 5 MHz)

  • Accurate (40 to 90 after AI):
  • •Simple pregnancy diagnosis
    • • Determination of fetal numbers
  • Disadvantage
  • Shaving the ventral abdomen (some breeds)
slide47

B. Transrectal Ultrasonography (5MHz)

Embryonic vesicle

Days 17-19 after A1

slide48

INTRODUCTION (contd)

B. Transrectal Ultrasonography

Embryonic vesicle

Days 17-19 after A1

slide49

INTRODUCTION (contd)

B. Transrectal Ultrasonography

Embryo proper

Days 24-34 after A1

slide50

INTRODUCTION (contd)

B. Transrectal Ultrasonography

Placentome

Days 30-32 after A1

triplets
Triplets

Smith, 2006

slide55

MATERIALS AND METHODS (contd)

Transrectal ultrasonography

  • Aloka SSD-500
  • 5 MHz linear
  • 12 h fasting
  • Allantoicfluid
slide56

Transrectal ultrasonography (US) and pregnancy-associated glycoprotein (PAG) tests

Sensitivity (%)

Sensitivity (%)

*P< 0.05

Fig 1. Sensitivity of transrectal ultrasonography(US) and pregnancy-associated glycoprotein (PAG) tests for detecting pregnant ewes

*P< 0.05

slide57

Transrectal ultrasonography (US) and pregnancy-associated glycoprotein (PAG) tests

Specificity (%)

Days of pregnancy

slide58

RESULTS

Results of pregnancy diagnosis in sheep performed transrectally by means of two B-mode ultrasound scanners

slide59

RESULTS

Accuracy values of the two B-mode ultrasound scanners for pregnancy diagnosis in sheep

abortion
Abortion
  • Early pregnancy:
      • < Day 12: estrus
  • Late pregnancy:
    • Return to estrus
    • Failure to lamb
    • Blood-tinged vaginal discharge: no fetus or placenta
    • Abortion
    • Stillborn and/or weak lamb (> 142 days)
abortion1
Abortion

Drost, 2006

mummification
Mummification

Drost, 2006

abortion2
Abortion
  • < 2% - < 5% (acceptable)
  • 30-40%: diagnostic accuracy
  • Investigation
    • History
    • Fetus and placenta
    • or appropriate samples
    • serum
    • Chilled sample to laboratory: as soon as possible
infectious ovine abortion
Infectious ovine abortion
  • Placenta (placental cotyledon): fixed (10% formalin) and fresh
  • Fresh fetuses - chilled if they can be delivered rapidly
  • Otherwise:
    • Fetal liver and lung: fresh and fixed
    • Fetal abomasum and contents: fresh
    • Fetal heart blood or exudate from body cavities, or both: fresh
infectious ovine abortion1
Infectious ovine abortion
  • Whole blood from affected ewes (if in 24 hours) or sera
  • Vaginal discharge from affected ewes: fresh
  • (Concerning the laboratory requirements we have to consult it with them)
abortion3
Abortion
  • Viral causes:
    • Bluetongue
    • Border disease
    • Cache Valley Disease
abortion4
Abortion
  • Bacterial/Chlamydial/Rickettsial causes
    • Brucellosis
    • Vibriosis/Campylobacteriosis
    • Enzootic abortion /Chlamydiosis
    • Coxiellosis/Q-fever
  • Parasitic causes
    • Toxoplasmosis gondii infection
prolapse of the vagina
Prolapse of the vagina
  • protrusion of the mucus membrane of the floor
  • fortnight of lambing
  • severe prolapse: heavy straining
    • shock
    • exhaustion
    • aneorobic infection
prolapse of the vagina1
Prolapse of the vagina

Treatment:

  • cleaning (antiseptic solution)
  • replacement (lubricant if necessary)
  • harness (retention of the prolapsed portion): twine or nylon strapping
  • plastic retainer (tape or harnees)
prolapse of the vagina2
Prolapse of the vagina

Prevention:

  • culling policy
pregnancy tox a emia
Pregnancy toxaemia
  • last 4 weeks before parturition
  • fatty infiltration of liver and rise in ketone levels
  • clinical symptoms: dull, without appetite, listless, disinclined to get up
pregnancy tox a emia1
Pregnancy toxaemia
  • hypoglycaemia: may be present
  • hypocalcaemia: injection of calcium
  • acetone in the breath
  • ketones in the urine: confirms the diagnosis
pregnancy tox a emia2
Pregnancy toxaemia

Treatment:

  • iv injections of 200 ml 40% glucose
  • synthetic glucocorticoid: abortion or premature lambing
pregnancy tox a emia3
Pregnancy toxaemia

Treatment:

  • early caesarean section
  • p.o.: glucose, electrolyte, glycine: every 4 to 8 hours
  • 200 ml 50% glycerol or propilene glycol 2 times/day (max. 30 ml) or 10 ml every 2 hours
pregnancy tox a emia4
Pregnancy toxaemia
  • Prophylaxis in the remainder of the flock:
    • 0,2-0,5 kg of cereal per head
    • good hay and roots, pulped and mixed with molasses
    • forced exercise twice daily
pregnancy tox a emia5
Pregnancy toxaemia

Prevention:

  • diagnosis of twin pregnancy
induction of abortion or lambing
Induction of abortion or lambing

Duringgestation

  • Days 5 to 50: PGF2a:10 to 20 mgin 2 to 3 days
  • After Day 85: Dexamethanose: < Day 12: estrus

Beforelambing: > Day 142

  • Dexamethanose: 16 mg i.m.
  • Betamethanose: 10-12 mg i.m.
    • Lambing: 36-60 h
first stage
First stage

Smith, 2006

dystocia
Dystocia

Ringwomb:15-32% of dystocia

  • + preparturient prolapse
  • incomplete dilatation of the cervix:
  • after protracted restlessness: no progress to the second stage
  • tight, unyielding ring: 1 or 2 fingers
  • 20% may open naturally
  • without treatment: toxaemia and death within 48 h
dystocia1
Dystocia

Incidence:

  • dry season: less
  • oestrogenic substances
    • red clover pasture
    • contaminated food with Fusarium graminaerum
  • reduced PGF2a production
dystocia2
Dystocia

Treatment:

  • digitalmanipulation
  • Hypocalcaemia: 60 ml Ca i.m. and Depotocin 0,5-1,0 ml ???
  • Spasmotitrat (2-3 ml)
  • Caesareansection

Hereditarybackround

dystocia3
Dystocia
  • Torsion of the uterus
  • Traction
    • 2% Lidocaine 2-5 ml
    • Xylazine 4 mg (0,2 ml) + 2 ml Lidocaine 2%
  • Foetotomy
  • Caesarean section
postparturient prolapse of the uterus
Postparturient prolapse of the uterus
  • careful wash with desinfective solution
  • hindquarters kept raised by an attendant
  • epidural anaesthesia: not required
    • prevent straining after replacement (xylazine: 2 mg IV, or 3-5 mg IM)
  • no separation of the membranes
  • replacement
  • antibiotics
postparturient prolapse of the uterus1
Postparturient prolapse of the uterus
  • 3 L Ringer – lactate

infusion

dystocia4
Dystocia
  • Treatment:
    • 10-20 NE oxytocin,
    • Penicilline: 22.000 NE/kg - 5 days
    • Uterine levage (foetotomy)
third stage
Third stage
  • FM: within 1-2 h
  • Involution:
    • lochia: max. until Day 21
    • hystology: Day 21
    • complete on Day 42
retention of the fetal membranes
Retention of the fetal membranes
  • rare: passed 2 to 10 days
  • if it occurs: exposed parts – apply traction from day to day
  • If general ill-health:
    • antibiotic pressaries
    • parenteral injections
slide94
RFM
  • RFM: after 12 h: 6,4 %
    • Se deficiency:
      • 20 %
acute metritis
Acute metritis
  • > 40 C
  • foul discharge
  • anorexia
newborn lamb

Newborn lamb

Légvétel után

Smith, 2006

newborn lamb1
Newborn lamb
  • Standing up: 10-30 min
  • < 2 h acceptance
  • 50 ml colostrum: tube
newborn lambs
Newborn lambs

Asphyxia neonatorum:

  • Secondary hypothermia
  • Death: 0 to 1-2 days
hypothermia and sme starvation missmothering exposure complex
Hypothermia and SME (Starvation-Missmothering- Exposure) complex
  • Multiple etiology: up to 65% of perinatal losses
  • Brown fat (perirenal, pericardinal and other sites): pinkish white at birth, or in new-born lambs (above 28 C)
hypothermia and sme starvation missmothering exposure complex1
Hypothermia and SME (Starvation-Missmothering- Exposure) complex
  • Important sites of nonshivering thermogenesis
  • Fat depletion (cold): red-brown color + subcutaneous edema
  • Less than 3 kg: hypothermia: immaturity, low fetal energy reserves and a wide surface area-to-body mass ratio
hypothermia
Hypothermia
  • Normal: 38.8 - 40 C
  • Slight hypothermia: 37 - 38.8 C
  • Severe hypothermia: < 37 C
hypothermia1
Hypothermia
  • Primary hypothermia: heat loss exceeds heat production
  • Secondary hypothermia: because of the factors that prevent the lamb from feeding and replenishing depleted fetal energy reserves.
hypothermia2
Hypothermia

Treatment:

  • by correcting hypoglycemia with intraperitoneal 20% glucose (10 ml/kg)
  • by rewarming (40 C until the rectal temperature is 38 C)
  • Attention to nutrition and husbandry are also critical
hypothermia3
Hypothermia

Prevention:

  • Adequate feeding during gestation: to prevent small fetuses
  • Shelter for lambing
  • Selection
hyperthermia
Hyperthermia
  • Severe dehidration
  • Weak suckling
embryology6
EMBRYOLOGY
  • Intrauterine migratio
  • Placenta epitheliochorialis (syndesmochorialis)
  • Semiplacenta cotilyca
  • CL dependens
embryology7
Embryology
  • Interferon tau(Caprinetrophoblast protein 1): Day 12
    • antiviral, immunosuppressive, antiproliferative and antiluteolytic activity (stabilize P4R and/or E2ROxytocin Rno PGFCLG
embryology8
EMBRYOLOGY
  • D 60: placental lactogen (prolactin)
  • Dry off period:
    • Tetanus and < 4 w enterotoxaemia vaccine
    • Vitamine E and Se
  • Duration of pregancy: 150 (147 to 155)
u ltrasound technique
Ultrasound technique

Doppler probe: from Day 25

  • Accurate: from Days 35-40

B-mode: from Day 30

chemical methods of pregnancy diagnosis
Chemical methods of pregnancy diagnosis

Progesterone assay:

  • Serum, milk: 21 to 24 days of gestation
    • > 10ng/ml pregnant, around 100%
  • False positive result:
    • hydrometra, pseudopregnancy, or retained corpus luteum
chemical methods of pregnancy diagnosis1
Chemical methods of pregnancy diagnosis
  • Estrone sulphate assay:
    • milk or urine at 50 days of pregnancy
    • The test does not give false-positives with hydrometra or persistent corpus luteum.
chemical methods of pregnancy diagnosis2
Chemical methods of pregnancy diagnosis
  • Pregnancy associated glycoprotein (PAG)
pathology of gestation1
Pathology of gestation
  • Pseudopregnancy + hydrometra: 2 mg PGF2a
  • Induction of abortion: 2,5-10 mg PGF2a: abortion after 5 days
  • Induction of kidding: Days 145 -149
    • 7-8 h: PgF2a 5-10 mg: kidding 30-35 h
pregnancy tox a emia ketonuria
Pregnancy toxaemia (ketonuria)
  • Prevention (last 6 weeks):
    • At least 0.25 kg of grain per day during the last month.
    • Any disease or condition causing loss of appetite should be treated promptly to avoid secondary ketosis.
pregnancy tox a emia6
Pregnancy toxaemia
  • Treatment:
    • Mild cases: hand feeding, 3 mg/kg of glycerol or 60 ml of propilene glycol twice a day
pregnancy tox a emia7
Pregnancy toxaemia
  • Severe case (Recumbent animal):
    • 200 ml 5% dextrose infusion i.v.
    • antibiotics,
    • 20 mg of Dexamethasone: induction
    • Dehydration, acidosis: 3 L fluid + 1500 mEq of bicarbonate i.v.
    • Caesarean section is indicated if the doe does not respond promptly to medical treatment.
hypocalcaemia
Hypocalcaemia
  • Around kidding
  • 25 ml Ca i.v. and s.c.
vaginal prolapse
Vaginal prolapse
  • During the last month of pregnancy
    • Incomplete vaginal prolapse
    • Complete vaginal prolapse
treatment
Treatment
  • Incomplete vaginal prolapse:
    • confinement
    • hindquarters are elevated at night
    • increasing exercise
treatment1
Treatment
  • Complete vaginal prolapse
    • Vulva should be sutured
    • Vaginal retainers designed for ewes
    • Culling
    • Lush clover or alfalfa roughage during pregnancy should be avoided
periparturient care of the doe
Periparturient care of the doe
  • Goats need a 6 to 8-week dry period.
  • Does with a history of mastitis should be dry treated.
periparturient care of the doe1
Periparturient care of the doe
  • Four weeks before parturition: tetanus, enterotoxemia vaccinations
  • Prophylactic Vitamin E-, Se injections: if white muscle disease occurs.
parturition2
PARTURITION
  • Kid is usually on its feet in 10 to 30 min.
  • Licking for 5 to 10 minutes is usually adequate for acceptance.
  • The first 2 hours after birth is critical.
induction of parturition
Induction of parturition
  • PGF2a on Days 144 to 149 of pregnancy: within 40 hours with a peak between 30 and 35 hours.
  • No retained fetal membranes and stillbirths
  • Advantage of induction: reduction of kid and doe mortality.
dystocia6
Dystocia
  • Incomplete cervical dilatation:
    • Firm rings (usually 2 bands 0.5 to 1 cm wide) can be felt.
    • A nondilatated cervix with cool skin and ears and muscle weakness: hypocalcemia (60 ml)???
    • Spasmotitrat???
    • Caesarean section is indicated.
dystocia7
Dystocia
  • Uterine torsion:
    • Uncommon
    • Caesarean section
dystocia8
Dystocia
  • Forced extraction:
    • If the cervix is well dilatated and the fetal presentation can be corrected, forced extraction may be attempted.
dystocia9
Dystocia
  • Fetotomy:
    • Epidural anesthesia: 2% 2 to 5 ml Lidocaine
dystocia10
Dystocia
  • Treatment following fetotomy:
    • Oxytocin: 10 to 20 IU to control bleeding
    • Penicillin: 20-40000 IU
    • Fluxixin: 1,1 mg/kg
    • Tetanus antitoxin: 1500 IU if it was not vaccinated.
    • Uterine levage:Bolus or fluid antibiotics
normal i nvolution
Normal involution
  • The placenta is normally passed within 1 to 2 hours after parturition.
  • Lochia normally red and odourless, persists for a max. of 3 weeks.
  • Uterine involution is completed by 6 weeks postpartum.
retained p lacenta 6 4
Retained placenta: 6,4%
  • RFM: not passed within 12 h
  • incidence: app. 6.4%
  • Treatment:
    • Antibiotics i.u. + i.m. (3-5 days)
    • Oxytocin 10-20 IU/ 12 h
    • Tetanus prophylaxis
retained p lacenta
Retained placenta

Prevention:

  • adequate exercise and nutrition
metritis
Metritis
  • Clinical signs:
    • anorexia,
    • dark red malodorous uterine discharge,
    • rectal temperature above 40 C
metritis1
Metritis

Treatment:

  • systemic antibiotic therapy
  • local treatment, if the cervix is open, by a catheter
uterine p rolapse
Uterine prolapse
  • Treatment:
    • Epidural anesthesia: Lidocaine
    • Sedation: 2 mg IV or 3 to 5 mg IM of xylazine