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EOC Study guide. Remember: REP ublics use rep resentatives, (Direct) d emocracies use d irect votes . Limited vs. Unlimited. Limited government limit the power of those in charge, unlimited means the people in power can do what ever they like. Dictatorship vs. Communism.

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limited vs unlimited
Limited vs. Unlimited

Limited government limit the power of those in charge, unlimited means the people in power can do what ever they like.

dictatorship vs communism
Dictatorship vs. Communism

Dictatorship uses force and usually military threat to keep control

Communism is when the government owns all resources and every one works for the community

magna carta
Magna Carta

The first document to limit the power of a monarchy (a government with a king or queen)

english bill of rights
English Bill of Rights

First bill that guarantees the rights of citizens.

baron montesquieu
Baron Montesquieu

Believes in the separation of power.

Checks and balances is based of his ideas

john locke
John Locke

Believes in natural born rights. The declaration of independence uses his ideas

“We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness.”

unicameral and bicameral
Unicameral and bicameral

One house legislative branch

Two houses in the legislative branch

declaration of independence
Declaration of Independence

Written by Thomas Jefferson.

Created after a series of taxes and aggressive acts by the British aimed at the American Colonists.

Written as an open letter to the King (George III) and the world as to the reasons Americans seek to no longer be part of England.


Confederacy – a loose grouping of states.

Americans try this system (Articles of Confederation) after the revolutionary war because it had no single person in power and made state rights more important than the nations.


Obligations are around to keep our country moving and upholding principles. (registering for the selective services, paying taxes, being on a jury, obey laws)


Natural born citizens are born citizens, either by place or parents.

Naturalized citizens are people who choose to become a citizen of a different country than they were born in.


The three main plans brought up in the Constitutional Convention, held in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 1774-1776.

  • NJ Plan – created for smaller states, fixed the problem of the national government not being able to tax, but kept an equal amount of votes per state and the congress was to be unicameral.
  • The Va. Plan was created for more populated states. It wanted to have the congress be bicameral, and with representation based off the population (more populated states get more votes).
  • Conn. Comp (Great Comp.) – Takes ideas from both NJ & Va plans. Congress would be bicameral, one house would be equal rep. (Senate), one would be population based (House of Rep).

Deals with how slaves would be counted for population under new constitution.

  • They would be worth 3/5 of a person, this helps the South gain more representation because that is where slavery is used the most.

Created after the Constitution is written. Anti Federalists demanded it be put in (they were afraid their rights would be taken away with out a Bill of Rights).


11th- citizen of one state can't sue another state in federal court

  • 12th - separate ballot for VP and P, can't be from the same state.
  • 13th - abolition of slavery in constitution.
  • 14th – defines citizenship and guarantees rights to all citizens
  • 15th - Right to vote regardless of gender, race, and background; grandfather clause
  • 16th -Income tax; those making a certain amount can be taxed
  • 17th - Direct election of senator
  • 18th – Prohibition of alcohol.
  • 19th – right for women to vote.
  • 20th – lame duck, moves the date when a Pres. Takes office up to 1/21.
  • 21st – Allows alcohol, removes 18th.
  • 22nd – Limits Pres. To 2 terms.
  • 23rd – 3 electoral votes for D.C.
  • 24th – Poll tax banned
  • 25th –Presidential succession order
  • 26th – Right to vote at age 18
  • 27th – Congressional wages.

Preamble of Constitution

    • States the purpose of the constitution.
      • Establish Justice
      • Insure domestic tranquility
      • Provide for the common defense
      • Promote the general welfare
      • And secure the blessings of liberty.

The Constitution can be amended in one of four ways.

    • Proposals take a 2/3 vote by congress or state leg.
    • Ratifying takes a ¾ vote by all state leg. or conventions in all states.


Make laws Enforces Laws Interprets Laws

expressed and implied powers
Expressed and Implied powers

Enumerated - These are powers allowed to congress listed out in the constitution.

Implied powers are created by the necessary and proper clause (elastic clause) in the constitution. It allows congress to make laws dealing with things they feel are needed, but are not one of the enumerated powers.

senate and filibusters
Senate and Filibusters

Filibusters are only conducted on the Senate floor (all of the Senate is present) on debate about a bill. There are no time limits, and this is used to stall a vote on a bill.

Filibusters are ended by cloture. This requires a 3/5ths vote of the senators and puts a limit on how much longer the bill can be discussed.