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Oracle Applications 11i Concepts II. Brian Hitchcock OCP 11i DBA -- OCP 10g DBA Sun Microsystems brian.hitchcock@sun.com brhora@aol.com. Brian Hitchcock February 10, 2008. www.brianhitchcock.net. Page 1. Presentation is Available. Contents. Oracle Applications Concepts I

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oracle applications 11i concepts ii

Oracle Applications 11i Concepts II

Brian Hitchcock OCP 11i DBA -- OCP 10g DBA

Sun Microsystems

brian.hitchcock@sun.com

brhora@aol.com

Brian Hitchcock February 10, 2008

www.brianhitchcock.net

Page 1

contents
Contents
  • Oracle Applications Concepts I
    • What is Oracle Applications?
    • 11i Architecture
    • Oracle Application Tiers
    • Login to Oracle Applications
    • Online Oracle Application environments
  • Oracle Applications Concepts II
    • 11i Applications Filesystem
    • Applications DBA utilities
    • Database DBA vs 11i DBA
    • Backups
    • Resources
focus
Focus
  • Generic Oracle Applications concepts
  • Not tied to specific installation(s)
  • Provide background for how Apps works
  • Help with support tasks in general
  • Technical
    • how it works
    • how to make it go
11i applications file system
11i Applications File System
  • $APPL_TOP
    • Top directory for all Oracle Application software
    • Contains $PROD_TOP for each product
    • Applications patches make changes in APPL_TOP
  • Environment variables setup at login
    • Environment files
  • Can be shared (shared APPL_TOP)
    • NFS mounted filesystem
    • Shared by two or more application tier servers
    • Apply patches once for all application tiers
    • Single point of failure
11i applications file system6
11i Applications File System
  • Home directory of applmgr UNIX user
    • APPL_TOP
      • Contains product directories
    • ORA_TOP
      • 8.0.6 Forms
        • ORACLE_HOME for forms server
      • iAS Web Server (Apache)
        • ORACLE_HOME for web server
    • COMMON_TOP
      • Directories/files used across products
11i database file system
11i Database File System
  • Database has
    • ORACLE_HOME
      • ORACLE_HOME for database
      • Database software
    • /oradata01-05
      • Database tablespace datafiles
  • Three ORACLE_HOMES
    • When applying applications patches
      • Patch applied in 8.0.6 ORACLE_HOME
environment files
Environment Files
  • Many pieces of software
  • All need to be configured
  • Many environment variables to be setup
  • How is this done?
    • Overall configuration file
    • <context>.xml
      • Context is <SID>_<hostname>
      • Stored in $APPL_TOP/admin
    • Multiple environment files sourced at login
      • Stored in $APPL_TOP
      • APPSORA.env – calls other environment files
os users
OS Users
  • Can install with single OS user
  • We use two
    • UNIX user ‘oracle’
    • UNIX user ‘applmgr’
  • Note that ‘applmgr’ is used in Oracle docs
    • Refers to the application code owner
    • Will be different for other installations
11i autoconfig
11i AutoConfig
  • Many configuration files
    • Changes required manually editing multiple files
  • Tedious, error prone
  • Autoconfig utility
    • Automates most configuration tasks
    • Make changes to context file
    • Execute autoconfig
    • Changes propagated to configuration files
  • Doesn’t handle customizations
    • May overwrite non-standard modifications
11i cloning
11i Cloning
  • Create exact copy of applications environment
    • Database
    • Application software
  • More involved than just a copy of database
  • Multiple steps
    • Somewhat automated
    • Rapid clone utility
11i patching
11i Patching
  • Never ending process
  • Applications patches applied with adpatch
    • Some database patches applied with opatch
    • Must be in maintenance mode to apply patch (11.5.10)
    • Patch can’t be removed
      • Only recourse is to recover from filesystem backups
  • Patches change product software
  • Patches change database objects
  • Applied patches recorded in database
    • Database must be running while patch applied
    • Applications tier processes down while patching
11i applications manager
11i Applications Manager
  • GUI tool for managing environment
  • What can it do?
    • Show patches applied
    • Show impact of new patches
    • Performance metrics
    • Monitor security
    • Configure environment
      • Edit context file, run autoconfig
database dba vs 11i dba
Database DBA vs 11i DBA
  • Users
    • Oracle Database Users
      • Access database (SQL*Plus, etc)
      • Have specific privileges on database objects
      • Stored in DBA_USERS table
    • Oracle Application Users
      • Don’t access the database directly
      • Don’t have privileges on database objects
      • Have responsibilities in Oracle Applications
      • Access db through APPS db user
        • Access limited by responsibilities
      • Stored in FND_USER table
database dba vs 11i dba15
Database DBA vs 11i DBA
  • Administrator
    • Database
      • SYS, SYSTEM, db user with DBA role
    • Oracle Applications
      • SYSADMIN
      • User with System Administrator responsibility
database dba vs 11i dba16
Database DBA vs 11i DBA
  • Privileges vs Responsibilities
  • Database privileges
    • Granted on specific db objects
    • Granted to specific db users or roles
  • Oracle Applications responsibilities
    • Assigned to Oracle Applications users
    • Allow access to groups of db objects
    • Access is through APPS db user
database dba vs 11i dba17
Database DBA vs 11i DBA
  • Users and responsibilities
  • Oracle database users and privileges
    • Can be dropped (removed)
  • Oracle Applications users
    • Can’t be removed, only ‘end-dated’
      • When created, user has start and end date
  • Oracle Applications user responsibility
    • Can’t be removed, only ‘end-dated’
      • When assigned, responsibility has start/end dates
database dba vs 11i dba18
Database DBA vs 11i DBA
  • Multiple ORACLE_HOMEs
  • For database DBA
    • Single ORACLE_HOME
  • For Oracle Applications
    • Three ORACLE_HOMEs
      • Database
      • 8.0.6 for Oracle Forms
      • iAS Web Server (Apache)
backups
Backups
  • How can this be complicated?
  • Database backups well defined
    • Copy all database datafiles (*.dbf files)
    • Copy init.ora, tnsnames.ora etc.
    • Copy archived redo logs if needed (hot db backup)
  • Oracle Applications environment backup
    • Database
    • Application software tree
backups20
Backups
  • Complete cold backup
    • Most conservative, most downtime
    • Single tier
      • Shutdown application tier processes (servers)
      • Shutdown database and database listener
      • Copy all filesystems to tape
    • Multi-tier
      • Shutdown all tiers
      • Backup all filesystems on all tiers to tape
backups21
Backups
  • Hot backup – version 1
    • No downtime, some risk
    • Single tier
      • Application/db tier processes are running
      • Hot db backup to disk
      • Copy all filesystems to tape
    • Multi-tier
      • Hot db backup to disk
      • Copy all filesystems to tape for all tiers
backups22
Backups
  • Hot backup – version 1 issues
    • Assumes application code tree is static
    • Assumes configuration static
    • Log files may be lost
      • Generated during tape backup
    • Database can be recovered to point of failure
      • Restore backup files, apply redo logs
    • Applications code tree recovered to latest tapes
      • No equivalent to database archived redo logs
backups23
Backups
  • Hot backup – version 2
    • No downtime, more risk
    • Single tier
      • Application/db tier processes are running
      • Hot db backup to disk
      • Copy only db backup files to tape
    • Multi-tier
      • Hot db backup to disk
      • Copy only db backup files to tape
backups24
Backups
  • Hot backup – version 2 issues
    • Same as for version 1
    • Over longer time
    • Applications file system recovery
      • Back to most recent tape backup
      • Out of synch with db backup
    • Is this acceptable recovery?
backups dr systems
Backups – DR Systems
  • How to keep DR system in synch?
    • Database
      • Apply redo logs from primary
      • Keep DR database up with primary db
    • Applications code tree
      • No equivalent to database redo logs
      • Need to refresh DR code tree from primary
        • How to do this?
        • How often to do this?
        • How far behind db can code tree for DR?
resources
Resources
  • Oracle Documents
    • Oracle Technology Network -- otn.oracle.com
  • Oracle Technical Support
    • Metalink -- metalink.oracle.com
  • Oracle online training
    • www.oracle.com/education/oln
  • Oracle University training
    • education.oracle.com
  • Solution Beacon
    • Oracle Applications Environments
  • Books
slide33

Documentation

  • Technical Overview
    • Oracle Applications Concepts
      • Release 11i (11.5.10.2)
      • Part No. B19295-03
    • Available at
      • http://download.oracle.com/docs/cd/B25516_18/current/acrobat/11iconcepts.pdf