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PEROXISOME. BY: Edwin Chua Isaac Kim AP BIO 10/29/13. PEROXISOME is here…deadly toxins need to FEAR. Background on Peroxisome. They are small vesicles found in the cytoplasm of the cell in only eukaryotic cells (plant & animal) Its two main functions is to:

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peroxisome

PEROXISOME

BY:

Edwin Chua

Isaac Kim

AP BIO

10/29/13

background on peroxisome
Background on Peroxisome
  • They are small vesicles found in the cytoplasm of the cell in only eukaryotic cells (plant & animal)
  • Its two main functions is to:
    • Break down long fatty acid chains
    • Rids the body from toxins through oxidation reactions.
  • Peroxisome contains vital, oxidative enzymes that are used to perform oxidation reactions.

-these enzymes include catalase, D-amino

acid oxidase, uric acid oxidase.

- these enzymes require oxygen (oxidative)

  • It is one micrometer in diameter.
  • It contains one phospholipid bilayer.
  • It replicates autonomously, even though it contains no DNA.
background on peroxisome1
Background on Peroxisome
  • Peroxisomes use the process of oxidative reactions with a specific, organic substrate to produce hydrogen peroxide.
    • RH2 + O2  R + H2O2
  • With the produced hydrogen peroxide, the peroxisome uses its enzyme, catalase, to oxidize other substrates (Ex: alcohol).
    • H202 + RH2  R + 2H2O
reason 1 detoxifies alcohol in our blood
Reason 1: Detoxifies alcohol in our blood
  • 2/3 Americans drink alcohol weekly.
  • In human liver and kidney cells, peroxisomes detoxify various toxics substance that enter human blood, such as alcohol.
    • Using catalase, an enzyme from the peroxisome, and hydrogen peroxide (produced from peroxisomes), alcohol is converted to water and acetaldehyde.
    • C2H5OH + H202  C2H3OH + 2H2O
  • The liver then produces enzymes that eliminates the acetaldehyde.
  • If it wasn’t for peroxisomes, 2/3 of the American population would die from their guilty pleasures, ALCOHOL.
reason 2 stopping the build up
Reason 2: Stopping the Build up

Breaks down long chains of fatty acids using oxidation

Creates hydrogen peroxide to oxidate toxins turning them in to water and oxygen

Breaking down of fatty acid creates metabolic energy

Prevents chemicals such as oxalate and fatty acid chains from building up

reason 3 protects our nervous system
Reason 3: Protects our Nervous System
  • Plasmologen is the most abundant phospholipid found in the layer that surrounds the axon of neurons (myelin).
  • Plasmologen is synthesized by Peroxisomes in Nerve Cells.
    • A fatty alcohol oxidativelyreacts peroxisome’s many enzymes, synthesizing plasmalogen.
  • Deficiencies in plasmalogen abnormalities and disorders of the nervous system.
    • Alzheimer’s. Down Syndrome.
nucleus
NUCLEUS…

Nucleus

As time passes, the nucleus can let unwanted debris inside causing problems with the cell

The proteins that form the nuclear pores which allow certain things in and out of the cell do not get repaired or replaced over time

As time passes, the nuclear pores can allow unwanted or dangerous objects into the nucleus and can cause damage to the cell’s DNA.

mitochondria
MITOCHONDRIA…
  • Mitchondria
  • Many differentt types of disease come from this organelle
    • Poor growth, loss of muscle coordination, autism, etc.
  • One out of 4,000 kids develop diseases from mitochondrial failure.
  • Happens when the organelle cannot create enough energy for the cell.
lysosomes
LYSOSOMES…
  • If a lysosome fails to contain its contents, the released enzymes can destroy a cell through autodigestion.
    • Autodigestion: the destruction of a cell caused by the action of a cell’s own enzymes.
  • If a lysosome lacks a functioning hydrolytic enzyme, it reacts with indigestible substrates.
    • Interferes with cellular activity
    • Ex: Tay-Sach’s disease: brain becomes impaired because the lack of a lipid-digesting enzymes causes an over-accumulation of lipids.
cilia flagellum
Cilia/Flagellum…
  • If the cilia in Fallopian Tubes are not functioning properly, the ovum does not reach the uterus.
    • This causes the embryo to be implanted outside the uterus or womb.
  • If the flagellum is dysfunctional in male sperm, this can lead to infertility.
    • The sperm cannot swim to the ovum.
works cited
Works Cited

NCBI. U.S. National Library of Medicine, n.d. Web. 28 Oct. 2013.

"Peroxisomes - Another Enzyme Package." Biology4Kids.com: Cell Structure: Peroxisomes. N.p., n.d. Web. 28 Oct. 2013.

Reece, Jane B. Campbell Biology, AP Edition. Boston, M.A.: Pearson Education/Benjamin Cummings, 2011. Print.