Bunker Hill • June 1775 • This battle was actually fought on Breed’s Hill. • It took the British 3 attempts to take the hill. The Americans were finally forced to retreat because they only had 13 Rounds per person.
Battle of Bunker Hill • This battle is considered a Draw . The British could claim victory because they took the hill while the Americans could claim victory because they killed/wounded half of the British (around 1100).
Attack on Fort Ticonderoga • May 1775 • These two men led the attack: Benedict Arnold and Ethan Allen. • Reason for attacking the fort: Needed the cannons. • The Americans were able to take the fort without firing a shot because the soldiers in the fort didn’t know about Lexington and Concord.
Battle of Quebec • December 31, 1775 • The 385 mile trip by Arnold and his men to Quebec was difficult because it was through the wilderness during the winter. • Arnold’s men got so hungry that they ate their dog, leather from their shoes, lip salve, cartridge boxes.
Battle of Quebec • The two leaders of the attack were Benedict Arnold and Richard Montgomery. • During the attack Montgomery was killed and Arnold was shot in the leg.
People of the American Revolution Chart Put 6 people per page
Name Side Achievement(s) Sam Adams Ethan Allen Benedict Arnold Penelope Barker General Burgoyne George Rogers Clark NEW PAGE General Cornwallis
Lydia Darragh John Dickinson General Gates Nathan Hale John Hancock NEW PAGE John Paul Jones Daniel Morgan Thomas Paine
“Molly Pitcher” Esther Reed Betsy Ross NEW PAGE Deborah Sampson Baron Von Stueben The “Swamp Fox” Mercy Otis Warren George Washington
Second Continental Congress • May 10, 1775-Philadelphia • Made Two Important Decisions: • 1. Created the Continental Army • and appointed George Washington • to be commander. • 2. Olive Branch Petition-sent to King George, declared the colonist’s loyalty and asked for a repeal of the Intolerable Acts.
Declaration of Independence • July 4, 1776 • Thomas Jefferson was chosen to write it. • Four Main Parts • 1. Preamble (introduction) • 2. Natural Rights-rights that belong to all people from birth. • 3. British wrongs-Listed 27 reasons why the colonies were declaring independence
Declaration of Independence • Independence-announces that the colonies have left England and formed the United States of America. • City approved in: Philadelphia • Men on the Declaration Committee: Thomas Jefferson, John Adams, Benjamin Franklin, Robert Livingston, Roger Sherman
Declaration of Independence • Section Removed and why: • A section condemning slavery was removed after objections from the Southern colonies.
American Strengths Weaknesses Little or no experience or training • Homefield Advantage • Fighting for a cause
American Strengths Weaknesses Army of volunteers at first No real navy • Defending their homes
American Strengths Weaknesses Loyalists working against them • Help from other countries
American Strengths Weaknesses Little unity among the colonies • Strategy and leadership of George Washington
American Strengths • strategy-avoid losing, keep war going until British get tired of fighting
British Strengths Weaknesses Over-confidence • Large navy • 45,000 trained and experienced troops
British Strengths Weaknesses Difficult to supply and communicate with their armies. • Help of Loyalists • Mercenaries
British Weaknesses Not used to “American” fighting. 1500 miles of coastline Atlantic Ocean-lost 25% of their ships to the ocean.
Battles for New York City The British • won the Battle of Long Island. The American army lost 970 (British 63) men
Battles for New York City • and had another 1079 men captured, which was about 25% of Washington’s army.
Battles for New York City • Washington made a big mistake by splitting his army between Manhattan and Long Island. The
Battles for New York City • British could have cut Washington off with their fleet, but luckily for the Americans the British
Battles for New York City • were prevented from doing this by unfavorable winds and rain.
Battles for New York City • On the night of August 29 Washington decided to attempt an escape by having his troops
Battles for New York City • ferried across the East River to Manhattan. • The escape was successful because
Battles for New York City • of darkness, fog, bad weather, and the silence of Washington’s troops.
Trenton • December 26, 1776 • Reasons Washington chose Christmas Night/morning after to attack: • 1. Element of Surprise
a. Hessians drunk? (not likely) b. Holiday c. Work of Washington’s spy d. Condition of river, blizzard
2. Most of the soldiers’ enlistments were running out on New Years Day. Washington needed a victory to convince soldiers to re-enlist.
The battle wasn’t fought against British troops but against Hessians, who were German Mercenaries.
Battle of Princeton • Washington and his army escapedby leaving a few men to keep the campfires burning while they marched around the British army.
Valley Forge Dec. 19, 1777, to June 19, 1778 • Location: Pennsylvania
“…..you might have tracked the army from White Marsh to Valley Forge by the blood of their feet.” “-George Washington
Number of troops at Valley Forge: 11,000 • Number/percentage of troops who died at Valley Forge: • 2500 (around 23%)
Problems for the soldiers: • soldiers barefoot, half naked. Not enough food.
Soldiers ranged in age from 12 to 60. • “Putrid fever, the itch, diarrhea, dysentery and rheumatism
Women worked as • housekeepers, laundresses, nurses, cooks.
34577 Lbs. of meat and • 168 barrels of flour per day were needed to feed the army
Morristown • Location: New Jersey • Number of soldiers involved: 13000 • Winters of 1777-78 and 79-80