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Chapter 13: Massage
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  1. Chapter 13: Massage

  2. Physiologic Effects of Massage • Mechanical stimulation of tissues by rhythmically applied pressure and stretching • Often used to increase flexibility and coordination, decrease pain & neuromuscular excitability, stimulate circulation and facilitate healing • Effects of massage may be either reflexiveor mechanical

  3. Physiologic Effects of Massage • Reflexive • Effects sensory and motor nerves locally and some central nervous system response • Mechanical • Makes mechanical or histological changes in myofascial structures through direct force applied superficially

  4. Reflexive Effects • Attempts to exert effects through skin and superficial connective tissues • Contact stimulates cutaneous receptors • Reflex mechanism is believed to be an autonomic nervous system phenomenon • The reflex stimulus causes sedation, relieves tension, increases blood flow

  5. Reflexive Effects • Effects on pain • Modulates pain through gate control & -endorphins • Effects on Circulation • Increase blood flow • Light touch causes transient dilation of lymphatics and small capillaries • Results in increased temperature in area • Increased lymphatic flow • Assists in removal of edema • May also impact lactate clearance

  6. Effects on Metabolism • Does not alter general metabolism • No alterations in acid-base equilibrium of blood • No significant effects on cardiovascular system • Assists in removal and hastens resynthesis of lactic acid

  7. Mechanical Effects • Techniques which stretch a muscle, elongate fascia or mobilize soft tissue adhesions or restrictions • Always accompanied by some reflex effects • As mechanical stimulus becomes more effective, reflex stimulus becomes less effective • Directed at deeper tissues, such as adhesions or restrictions in muscle, tendons, and fascia.

  8. Mechanical Effects • Effects on muscle • Mechanical stretching of intramuscular connective tissue • To relieve pain and discomfort associated with myofascial trigger points • Increase blood flow to skeletal muscle • To retard muscle atrophy following injury • To increase range of motion • Does not increase strength or muscle tone

  9. Mechanical Effects • Effects on skin • Increase in skin temperature • Increases sweating • Mechanically loosens adhesions and softens scar • Stretches and breaks down fibrous scar tissue • Breaks down adhesions between skin and subcutaneous tissue

  10. Psychological Effects of Massage • Psychological effects of massage can be as beneficial as physiologic effects • “Hands on” effect helps patients feel as if someone is helping them • Lowers psycho-emotional and somatic arousal • Tension & anxiety

  11. Treatment Considerations and Guidelines • Knowledge of anatomy essential • Understanding of existing pathology • Thorough knowledge of massage principles

  12. Positioning of Clinician • Positioning will allow relaxation, prevent fatigue, and permit free movement of arms, hands, and body • Weight evenly distributed and should shift from one foot to the other • Fit your hands to contour of area being treated • Hands should be warm

  13. Treatment Techniques • Pressure regulation determined by the type and amount of tissue present and patient's condition • Rhythm must be steady and even • Duration depends on the pathology, size of the area being treated, speed of motion, age, size, and condition • With swelling begin proximally to facilitate lymphatic flow -"uncorking effect"

  14. Massage should never be painful • Direction of forces should parallel muscle fibers • Begin and end with effleurage • Make sure patient is warm and in a comfortable, relaxed position • Body part may be elevated if necessary • Sufficient lubricant should be used • Begin with superficial stroking to spread lubricant

  15. Stroke should overlap • Pressure should be in line with venous flow followed by a return stroke • All strokes should be rhythmic

  16. Equipment Set Up • Table • Linens and pillows • Lubricant • Should be absorbed slightly by skin but does not make it slippery • Combination of one part beeswax to three parts coconut oil • Other types of lubricants that may be used are olive oil, mineral oil, cocoa butter, hydrolanolin, analgesic creams, alcohol, powder

  17. Preparation of Patient • Patient should be in a relaxed, comfortable position • Part involved in treatment must be adequately supported • Prone, supine, seated • Clothing should be removed from part being treated

  18. Massage Treatment Techniques

  19. Hoffa Massage • Classical massage technique which uses a variety of superficial strokes • Effleurage • Petrissage • Tapotement • Vibration

  20. Effleurage (Stroking) • Every massage begins and ends with effleurage • Increases venous and lymphatic flow • Increases circulation to skin surface • Start with a light pressure, move centripetally or centrifugally consistently throughout treatment

  21. Effleurage (Stroking) • Deep stroking is a form of effleurage, except it is given with more pressure to produce a mechanical effect • Kneading stroke is directed towards the heart

  22. Petrissage(Kneading) • Consists of kneading manipulations that press and roll muscles under fingers or hands • Muscles are gently squeezed, lifted, and relaxed • Hands may remain stationary or move along length of muscle or limb

  23. Petrissage(Kneading) • Purpose is to increase venous and lymphatic return and to press metabolic waste products out of affected areas through intensive vigorous action • Can also break up adhesions between skin and underlying tissue

  24. Tapotment(Percussion) • Uses a variety of percussive or beating techniques • Brisk blows administered with relaxed hands (rapid alternating movement • Used to increase circulation and blood flow • Used to stimulate peripheral nerve endings

  25. Tapotment(Percussion) • Hacking

  26. Tapotment(Percussion) • Hacking • Slapping

  27. Tapotment(Percussion) • Hacking • Slapping • Beating

  28. Tapotment(Percussion) • Hacking • Slapping • Beating • Tapping

  29. Tapotment(Percussion) • Hacking • Slapping • Beating • Tapping • Clapping or cupping

  30. Vibration • A fine tremulous movement, made by hand or fingers placed firmly against a part causing a part to vibrate • Hands should remain in contact and a rhythmical trembling movement will come from arms

  31. Friction Massage • Purpose: • Loosen adherent fibrous tissue (scar) • Aid in edema absorption • Reduce muscle spasm • Produce reflex effects • Involves small circular movements directed at underlying structures beneath superficial tissues

  32. Transverse Friction Massage • Technique for treating chronic tendon inflammation • Purpose is to increase inflammatory response to progress healing process • Use strong pressure in perpendicular direction to fibers for 7 to 10 minutes every other day

  33. Connective Tissue Massage(Bindegewebsmassage) • Stroking technique carried out in layers of connective tissue on body surface • Abnormal tension in one part of tissue is reflected in other parts • Stroking produces a relaxation of muscular tension and a prickling warmth in area • Used mostly in Europe

  34. Connective Tissue Massage(Bindegewebsmassage) • Patient is usually in sitting position • Basic stroke of pulling performed with tips, or pads, of the middle and ring fingers of either hand • Stroking technique characterized by a tangential pull on skin and subcutaneous tissues away from fascia • Technique causes sharp pain in tissue

  35. Connective Tissue Massage(Bindegewebsmassage) • No lubricant is used • Treatments last about 15 to 25 minutes After 15 treatments 2-3 times per week, there should be a rest period of 4 weeks • Connective tissue massage must be learned and performed initially under direct supervision of someone who has been taught these highly specialized techniques

  36. Indications • Scars on the skin • Fractures and arthritis in bones and joints • Low back pain • Varicose symptoms, thrombophlebitis, hemorrhoids, edema in blood and lymph • Raynaud’s disease, intermittent claudication, frostbite • Myocardial dysfunctions, respiratory disturbances • Intestinal disorders, ulcers, hepatitis, amenorrhea, dysmenorrhea, genital infantilism, Parkinson’s disease, migraines

  37. Trigger Point Massage • Myofascial trigger points found in skeletal muscle and tendons, in myofascia, in ligaments and capsules surrounding joints, in periosteum, in skin • May be activated and become painful due to some trauma to muscle occurring either from direct trauma or from overuse

  38. Pain results from inflammatory response • Pain usually referred to areas which follow a specific pattern • Stimulation of these points has been demonstrated to result in pain relief • Acupressure points and myofascial trigger points are similar

  39. Latent trigger points • Don’t cause spontaneous pain, may restrict movement • Active trigger points • Causes pain at rest • Tender to palpation with referred pain • Identification: • Patient has persistent regional pain resulting in decreased ROM • Hypersensitive nodules  palpation results in pain in the area and radiation of pain • Contracting involved muscle  increases pain • Firm pressure usually elicits “jump sign”

  40. Acupressure and trigger point massage are very similar • Independently discovered but rely on similar underlying neural mechanisms • Treatment effectiveness may be result of intense, low-frequency stimulation of trigger points and release of b-endorphins

  41. Trigger Point Massage Techniques • Locate points from chart • Use fingers or elbow to do small friction- like circular motions • Amount of pressure applied should be intense and painful • Patient reports a dulling or numbing effect • Treatment times range from 1-5 min at several points

  42. Strain-Counterstrain • Approach used to decrease muscle tension • Passive technique that places body in position of greatest comfort  pain relief • Athletic trainer locates a trigger point corresponding to point of dysfunction • Tend to be located deep in tendons, fascia & muscles • Tense, tender, edematous spots

  43. Clinician monitors tension and pain of tender point while patient is moved into position of comfort • Often involves shortening of muscle/tissue • Tender spot will no longer be painful in this position • After 90 seconds pain and point should be cleared or reduced • Patient is then returned to resting position and should note change in symptoms associated with trigger point

  44. Strain-Counterstrain • Physiological rationale • Stretch reflex • Muscle is placed on slack, reducing muscle spindle input • Facilitates relaxation and hence decrease tension and pain

  45. Positional Release Therapy • Based on strain-counterstrain • Difference is the use of a facilitating force • Follows the same steps as strain-counterstrain • Incorporates maintained compression on tender point • Suggested that maintaining contact exerts a therapeutic effect

  46. Active Release Therapy • Used to correct soft-tissue problems in muscle, tendons & fascia • Fibrotic adhesions due to acute injury, pressure/tension injuries, repetitive overuse injuries • Deep tissue technique • Clinician identifies the area and traps the affected muscle by applying pressure • Patient then actively elongates the muscle • Repeated 3-5 times • Patient must follow stretching, activity modification and exercise instructions

  47. Active Release Therapy

  48. Myofascial Release • Has also been referred to as soft tissue mobilization • Group of stretching techniques used to relieve soft tissue from abnormal grip of tight fascia • Myofascial restrictions are unpredictable and may occur in many different planes and directions

  49. Myofascial Release • Treatment is on localizing restriction and moving into the direction of the restriction • Soft tissue mobilization technique • Myofascial manipulation relies heavily on experience of clinician

  50. Focuses on large treatment areas • Can have significant impact on joint mobility • Massage occurs through the restriction • With improvements in extensibility of tissue, stretching should be incorporated • Strengthening is also recommended to enhance neuromuscular re-education • Postural re-education may help ensure maintenance of less restricted movement patterns • Acute cases tend to resolve after a few treatments; while longer conditions require additional treatment