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Pediatric Neurology Multi-topic Review and Questions. Division of Child Neurology Department of Pediatrics Goryeb Children’s Center Atlantic Health. Topics Headache Seizures and Epilepsy Peripheral Nervous System Disorders Radiology and Picture Book Review Ataxia

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Pediatric Neurology Multi-topic Review and Questions


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    1. Pediatric Neurology Multi-topic Review and Questions Division of Child Neurology Department of Pediatrics Goryeb Children’s Center Atlantic Health

    2. Topics • Headache • Seizures and Epilepsy • Peripheral Nervous System Disorders • Radiology and Picture Book Review • Ataxia • Neurocutaneous Syndromes • Review questions and answers

    3. HEADACHE IN CHILDREN

    4. Epidemiology of Headache • uncommon before 4 years • prevalence increases with age • female predisposition with puberty • < 10-12 years  girls = boys (1 : 1) • > 10-12 yearsgirls > boys (1.5 : 1) • most are MIGRAINE or TENSION • remission occurs in 70% of cases ages 9-16 years

    5. Headache Classification • PRIMARY= Benign (Migraine, Tension, Cluster) • exam normal • no papilledema • no fever / meningismus • normal neuroimaging • normal CSF (including opening pressure) • SECONDARY • Something’s wrong

    6. Migraine • Anterior location (frontotemporal, uni- or bilateral) • Pulsating quality(throbbing, pounding) • Autonomic symptoms (required): • Nausea / vomiting / photo- or phono-phobia / pallor • “Classic migraine” begins with a transient aura • Visual aura most common (15-30 min) • Geneticallypredisposed • “Common migraine” = no aura (70-85 % children) • Triggers: sleep deprived, hunger, illness, travel, stress (only 50 % migraineurs can identify trigger)

    7. Migraine common with other conditions: • Somatic pain complaints • abdominal non-localizing discomfort • Epilepsy • Psychiatric • depression • anxiety

    8. Migraine-relatedsyndromes(variants) • Benign paroxysmal vertigo • recurrent vertigo (suddenly looks afraid, grabs onto someone) • nausea, vomiting, nystagmus • Cyclic vomiting • recurrent severe nausea and vomiting (q weeks-to-months) • attacks last hours-to-days • symptom-free between attacks • Alternating hemiplegia • repeated attacks of L or R hemiplegia • onset before 18 months • normal at birth, neurodevelopmental issues after onset • Paroxysmal torticollis • benign intermittent self-limited episodes of head tilt • spells last hours to days • start in 1st year of life, resolve by age 5 years

    9. “Chronic Daily Headaches” (months) • Migraines that have changed character: • Poor pain control • Psychosocial causes • Medication overuse (aka “rebound headaches”) • 5+ per week • 15+ per month • No underlying pathology

    10. Tension • Pain posterior> anterior, or band-like • Squeezing quality (tight, vice-like) • Neck muscles sore • Common trigger: STRESS ! • NO autonomic symptoms • NO nausea / vomiting / photo- or phonophobia • NO aura • Best treatments: • NSAIDs, relaxation / biofeedback

    11. Dx and work-upof chronicrecurrent headache • Diagnosis based on H & P • No neuroimaging if exam normal • Inadequate evidence to support the value of routinelabsor CSF analysis • EEG may be normal or show non-specific abnormalities (focal slowing, occipital spikes after migraine) • Does not distinguish headache types • Does not distinguish headache cause • NOT RECOMMENDED for routine evaluation

    12. Treatment for primary recurrent headache • Practice parameters adapted from adult studies • Avoid / minimizetriggers (MIGRAINES) • Optimize hydration • Good sleep hygiene / avoid sleep deprivation • Avoid hunger • Avoid food triggers (aged cheeses, chocolate, caffeine/ soda, processed deli meats, MSG, red wine) • Mind-Body approach - minimize stress (TENSION) • Biofeedback / relaxation • Acupuncture • Self-hypnosis

    13. Acute treatments for migraines • Goals: reduce / ablate pain, restore function, minimize need for rescue medications • Treat promptly at onset • Include anti-emetics (if nausea / vomiting): • metoclopramide (Reglan) • prochlorperazine (Compazine) • promethazine (Phenergan) • Avoid medication overuse (meds <2-3 x per week) • 1st line meds: NSAIDs • Triptans (serotonin 1B/1D receptor agonists): • sumatriptan (Imitrex) intranasal or oral tablets (> 12 yo)

    14. Prophylactic treatments for migraines • Indicated if headaches 1-2 x/ week or prolonged/ debilitating • propranolol (Inderal) • side effects – hypotension, bradycardia • avoid in asthmatics, depressed • amitriptyline (Elavil) • side effects – drowsiness, orthostasis, dysrhythmia (EKG) • may require 6-12 weeks to determine effectiveness • anti-epileptics (topiramate, valproic acid, carbamazepine, neurontin) • calcium channel blockers (verapamil) • serotonin agonists (cyproheptadine, methysergide) • vitamins (B2 / riboflavin, magnesium)

    15. Rethink the diagnosis of benign headache when headache: • always in the same location • fails to respond to multiple medical therapies • focal neurologic signs appear • 6th nerve palsy, diplopia, new onset strabismus, papilledema, hemiparesis, ataxia • worsening frequency / severity • worse with valsalva (coughing, straining) • awakens from sleep, worse in the morning, AM vomiting • at-risk hx or condition: VPS, neurocutaneous disorder

    16. Secondary “symptomatic” headache • Increased intracranial pressure (brain tumor, brain abscess, hemorrhage, hydrocephalus, VPS malfunction, meningitis, pseudotumor*) • Vascular (stroke, intracerebral hemorrhage, vasculitis, ruptured aneurysm or AVM) • Epilepsy (postictal or ictal) • Head and Neck pathology (sinusitis, dental abscess, trigeminal neuralgia, TMJ pain, carotid dissection) • Systemic Illness (HTN, DM, cardiac disease-source of emboli/stroke) • Drug Use (analgesic overuse/rebound, drug abuse-cocaine, psychostimulants, OCPs, steroids) • Psychological (depression) scan will be normal, but + papilledema

    17. NEUROIMAGING for headache (before LP) if: • abnormal neurologic exam • altered mental status • papilledema, VI nerve palsy, diplopia, new onset strabismus • focal findings (hemiparesis) • nuchal rigidity, fever • change in headache frequency, intensity, type • studies of choice: • CT – BONE(skull fracture), BLOOD(intracranial hemorrhage), ventricles (hydrocephalus), sinuses, mass lesions, EMERGENCY(altered MS) • MRI – hydrocephalus, sinuses, mass lesions, acuteSTROKE, vascular malformation • LP – NOT with focal mass lesion on CT or MRI, but OK for pseudotumor, meningitis, subarachnoid hemorrhage after CT

    18. Headache due to Brain Tumor CT of the brain with contrast: - enhancing tumor (the white mass) with surrounding edema (the darkened region surrounding the tumor) - mild effacement of the left lateral ventricle

    19. Headache due to Intracranial hemorrhage EPIDURAL – acute(white) lens-shaped blood collection causing significant mass effect SUBDURAL – sub-acute(gray) blood collection withless severe mass effect

    20. Headache due to Intracranial Hemorrhage: Ruptured AVM MRI CT no contrast hemorrhage Angio Headache followed by acute deterioration in mental status

    21. Headache due to Hydrocephalus: Choroid Plexus Papilloma (CSF secreting intraventriculartumor which obstructs ventricular system)

    22. Obstructive / Non-communicating Hydrocephalus due to Aqueductal Stenosis • CT of the brain: • large frontal and • temporal horns of • lateral ventricles • large third ventricle • 4thventricle small 3rd 4th

    23. Obstructive / Non-communicating Hydrocephalus due to Chiari Malformation: low lying tonsils alone (Chiari I) – usually asymptomatic low lying tonsils + hydrocephalus (Chiari II) – diffuse headache Chiari I ChiariII (+ lumbosacralmyelomeningocele)

    24. Non-Obstructive / Communicating Hydrocephalus due to Meningitis CT of the brain reveals enlarged frontal and temporal horns of the lateral ventricles and enlarged 3rd and 4th ventricles. Headache, photophobia, fever, nuchal rigidity (meningeal irritation due to infection and inflammation). 3rd 4th

    25. Headache due to Stroke MRI of the brain revealing posterior circulation strokes (occipital cortex, cerebellum and brainstem) Child with sickle cell anemia presenting with headache, ataxia and cranial nerve palsies.

    26. Headache due to Neck Trauma Traumatic dissection of right internal carotid artery (ex. running with pencil in mouth, ex. whiplash on amusement park ride): -“string sign” on angio - right MCA stroke on CT

    27. SEIZURES AND EPILEPSY IN CHILDREN

    28. Seizures and Epilepsy • Neonatal Seizures (not epilepsy) • Febrile Seizures (not epilepsy) • Infantile Spasms (epilepsy) • Lennox-Gastaut Syndrome (epilepsy) • Childhood Absence (Petit Mal) Epilepsy • Juvenile Absence Epilepsy • Juvenile Myoclonic Epilepsy • Benign Rolandic Epilepsy • Complex Partial Epilepsy

    29. Epidemiology of Seizures and Epilepsy • 4-6 % incidence of a single seizure in childhood • 1% incidence of epilepsy (> 2 unprovoked seizures) in childhood • 70-80 % of children “outgrow” their seizures • HISTORY is the most important tool in differentiating a seizure from a non-seizure look-alike • EEG is an adjunctive test to clinical history • after 1st unprovokedseizure, 40% recurrence risk (80% recurrence risk if EEG abnormal) • For 2nd unprovoked seizure, 50% occur within 6 months of 1st seizure

    30. Epidemiology of Seizures and Epilepsy • Increased recurrence risk if: • symptomatic etiology (dev delay, MR / CP) • abnormal EEG • complex febrile seizures • Todd’s paresis • nocturnal seizures • + FHx childhood onset epileptic seizures • Factors that do NOT influence recurrence risk: • patient age • seizure duration

    31. Neonatal Seizures (not epilepsy) • Benign Neonatal Familial Convulsions • Onset 2nd or 3rd day of life • No perinatal complications • Autosomal dominant condition (+FHx) • chromosomes 20 and 8 • affected gene product: alpha-subunit of Ach Receptor • Mixed seizure types • apneic, clonic, tonic, autonomic, oculofacial • Typically easy to control seizures which resolve in 1st year of life • Neuroimaging and EEG normal

    32. Neonatal Seizures (may progress to epilepsy) • Symptomatic (secondary) neonatal seizures • Multiple Causes • Hypoxia-Ischemia (HIE) • Infection (meningitis, sepsis) • Hemorrhage (IVH, subarachnoid, intraparenchymal) • Infarction (thrombotic, hemorrhagic) • Metabolic derangement (low sodium, low calcium, glucose) • Inborn errors of metabolism • CNS malformation • Treatments: IV phenobarbital, IV phenytoin, IV benzodiazepines, **trial of IV pyridoxine 100 mg

    33. Febrile Seizures (not epilepsy) • 2-4 % of children age ~ 6 months – 6 years • Provoked by a sudden spike in temp usually with URI, Acute OM, AGE (genetic predisposition) • “Simple” • Generalized convulsion(whole body shaking) • Brief(< 15-20 minutes) • Only onein the course of an illness • Future risk of epilepsy 1% like other children • “Complex” • focal seizure (one side of body shaking, staring) • prolonged (> 15-20 minutes) • multiple in 24 hours • Complex febrile seizures hint at an increased risk of future epilepsy

    34. Treatment of Febrile Seizures (not epilepsy) • Considered benignnot warranting daily anti-seizure medication • but phenobarbital or valproic acid provide some prevention • Rectal Diastat(valium gel) may be used to: • abort prolonged complex febrile seizure • prevent complex febrile seizure clusters (if child known to cluster) • prevent febrile seizure recurrence during a febrile illness • Anti-pyretics have NOT been proven to decrease the risk of recurrent febrile seizures

    35. Infantile Spasms (West Syndrome) – a severe epilepsy Severely abnormal EEG pattern: disorganized, discontinuous, high amplitude, multifocal spikes calledHYPSARRHYTHMIA • Clinical spasms (1-2 secs) • a subtle momentary flexion or • extension of the body • occur in clusters when drowsy • (waking or falling asleep) Treatment: ACTH

    36. Infantile spasms • may be mistaken for colic, reflux, hiccups, or a startle ! • common etiologies: • perinatal insults (ex. hypoxia-ischemia, meningitis) • brain malformation • neurocutaneous disorder (Tuberous Sclerosis) • metabolic disorder • ARXAristaless X-linked homeobox gene mutation • prognosis best (10% good outcome) if idiopathic • normal development at onset of infantile spasms • extensive etiology testing negative • prognosis poor for: • seizure control (infantile spasms and future seizures) • future neurocognitive and developmental abilities

    37. Lennox-Gastaut Syndrome –a severe epilepsy • Often evolves frominfantile spasms • Neurodevelopmentally impaired children • Syndrome defined by a TRIAD of: • 1. mixed seizure types: atonic, atypical absence, myoclonic, tonic-clonic, partial • 2. developmental delay • 3. abnormal EEG pattern: slow (< 2.5 Hz) spike wave discharges • Prognosis poor

    38. Childhood Absence (Petit Mal) Epilepsy a genetically predetermined generalized epilepsy = a ‘primary generalized’ epilepsy • - Sudden onset of staring, interrupting speech or activity • Occurs multiple times per day • Short duration (seconds) • - Occurs in school aged children ~ 4-12 years, otherwise normal

    39. Childhood Absence (Petit Mal) Epilepsy (continued) EEG findings characteristic: - bilateral generalized 3 Hz spike-and-wave discharges - provoked by hyperventilationandphotic stimulation Effective treatment: ethosuximide (Zarontin) Commonly resolves by adolescence Presumed genetic cause: chromosome 8 (8q24) and 5 (5q31)

    40. JuvenileAbsence Epilepsy(another ‘primary generalized’ epilepsy) • onset a bit older than childhood absence epilepsy • in adolescence (closer to middle school than elementary school) • similar staring seizures but: • longer duration • fewer in frequency • higher riskfor other generalized seizures: • GTC • Myoclonic • less likely to outgrow • EEG generalized spike wave discharges: • Faster than 3 Hz (4-6 Hz)

    41. Juvenile Myoclonic Epilepsy (JME)(another ‘primary generalized’ epilepsy) EEG: bilateral generalized 4-6 Hz spike-wave or polyspike-wave activity Seizure types: - myoclonic in AM - “grand mal” - absence

    42. Juvenile Myoclonic Epilepsy (JME) (continued) • Seizures provoked by: • sleep deprivation or arousals from sleep • photic stimulation • alcohol intake • Mean age at onset 14 years • EEG: 4-6 Hz spike wave provoked by photicstimulation • Chance of relapse 90% if medications discontinued—felt to require lifelong treatment • Genetic predisposition • Candidate gene on chromosome 6

    43. Benign RolandicEpilepsy(a genetically predetermined focal epilepsy) • Onset 3-13 years old, boys > girls • 15% of epileptic children • Normal IQ, normal exam, normal MRI • May have + FHxsz • Seizure description: • When awake: • twitching and/or tingling on one side of body • speech arrest, speech difficulty, may drool / gag • no loss of consciousness, usually < 2 minutes • When asleep (nocturnal): • “grand mal” with focal features

    44. Benign Rolandic Epilepsy Aka Benign Focal Epilepsy of Childhood with Centrotemporal Spikes EEG has characteristic pattern: bilateral independent centrotemporal spikes

    45. Benign Rolandic Epilepsy • Treatment recommended only if: • Seizures frequent (which is unusual) • Socially stigmatizing if occur in wakefulness • Anxiety provoking for parents if occur in sleep • Effective treatments: • Avoidance of sleep deprivation • Medications: carbamazepine, oxcarbazepine • Time (outgrown by adolescence)

    46. Other Epilepsy Syndromes • Landau-Kleffner Syndrome • an acquiredEPILEPTIC APHASIA in a PREVIOUSLY NORMAL child, usually 3-7 years old • Gradual or sudden inability to understand or use spoken language (“word deafness”) • Must have EEG abnormalities in slow sleep(sleep activated) • Additional behavioral and psychomotor disorders (hyperactivity, aggressiveness, depression, autistic features) • May have additional overt clinical seizures (80 %) in sleep

    47. Other Epilepsy Syndromes • Rett Syndrome • Occurs only in girls (X-linked lethal mutation) – MECP2 gene mutation • Initial normal development  dev regression / autistic (loss of motor / language / social skills) • Acquired microcephaly(deceleration of head growth) • Hand wringing / alternating hand movements • Irregular breathing patterns • Apnea • Hyperpnea • Breathholding • Seizures

    48. Complex Partial Epilepsy • Impairment of consciousness (staring) • Temporal lobe onset (80 %) most common Mesiotemporal sclerosis

    49. Complex Partial Seizures + aura + incontinence + postictal lethargy EEG with focal spikes lasts minutes (but can be shorter) Absence Seizures NO aura NO incontinence NO postictal period (immediate recovery) EEG with generalized 3 Hz spike wave activity lasts seconds (but can be longer) Differentiating “Staring” Seizures

    50. Spells that mimic seizures • Apnea / ALTE • GER • Sleep disorders (nocturnal myoclonus, night terrors, narcolepsy/cataplexy) • Migraine variants (esp. aura) • Benign breathholding spells • No neuro consult / lab / EEG / CT, Fe for cyanotic type • Syncope • Movement Disorders (tics, tremor, dystonia) • ADD • Behavioral Stereotypies (PDD) • Pseudoseizures (psychogenic seizures) • Strange posturing, back arching, writhing • Alternating L and R limb shaking during same seizure • Psychosocial stressor