Structural Levels of Language. Lecture 1. Ferdinand de Saussure. "Language is a system sui generis “ = a system where everything holds together The division of language into different structural levels is made only for the sake of investigation.
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It is not possible for an item of one level to combine with an item of another level
while preserving the qualities of the original level
an item of one level can pass over and be integrated into another level
it acquires the features of the level into which it has been integrated, abandoning the features it had in the previous levelPhonemes, morphemes, words
the -s marker for the plural of the nouns;
the -s marker for 3rd p. sg.;
the -s marker for the genitive case
,, ,,, , ;
It seems that there are many words consisting of only one morpheme.
eye + 0º = eye
There is structural qualitative difference between a morpheme and a word
the common forms singular of the nouns
the common plural forms of the nouns.
the morphemes 0 and -s have these meanings irrespective of the lexical meanings of the items
every word must be grammatically motivated
girl- + -0 = girl
girl- + -s = girls
Grammatical motivation can be considered as grammatical completeness For this reason one can discuss problems of meaning connected with the word with greater confidence than with the morpheme