Types of Sources • Information comes from many different types of sources • Encyclopedias • Journals • Databases • World Wide Web • Every type of source has its own PURPOSE, and it’s own way of presenting information. • The trick is to know the difference, and choose the APPROPRIATE Source for the TASK
Choosing Sources Wisely • When you're doing research for a project, you need to make sure that you are choosing your sources wisely. • Your project will only be as good as your sources • This means CHOOSING: • The BEST Type of SOURCE for the task • GOOD SOURCES
Choosing the BEST type of Source • How do you decide which is the BEST TYPE of source for the task? • Become familiar with the type of information offered by different types of sources. • Start by thinking about your Research Question: What is it I want to find? • Match up the type of information you need to find, with the type of source. • Usually your Research will be a Journey, not a Destination. • It will require you to use many different TYPES of Sources. A Good Rule to follow is: • Start with the GENERAL and move to the SPECIFIC
Focused Knowledge Specific Knowledge General Knowledge Reference Articles Books, Specialized General Sources • Encyclopedias • General References Specific Sources • Journal Articles • Website articles Focused Sources • Books • E Books • Specialized References • Websites From The General to the Specific
Choosing Good Sources • You must become a GOOD judge of what a good source is • It is your responsibility to become a Reliable, Effective CONSUMER of Information • 3 Important Questions to think about are: • Is this source reliable? Does it contain facts, or opinions? • Is this source complete? Does it say all there is to say on the topic? • Is this source up-to-date? Was it written recently?
Encyclopedias >General Knowledge • An Encyclopedia is a large, multi-volume Reference work, which contains a summary of information • Encyclopedias provide general, background information on a topic • An Encyclopedia can be General – which means it contains information from a broad range of topics OR • An Encyclopedia can be Specialized – which means it contains information from a particular topic, culture, time period, or event. They provide much more depth and detail on their subject matter. • Ex: Encyclopedia of the Middle Ages, BC Encyclopedia NOTE: The word “encyclopedia” means “General Education”
Why & When to use Encyclopedias • An Encyclopedia is an EXCELLENT place to START your research • Gives you a good, general overview of your topic • Helps you narrow down your Research Focus • Helps you narrow down your topic, and refine your Research Question • Can POINT the way to more specific sources Resources • Pros: • Encyclopedias are informational, factual, and reliable sources of information • Encyclopedia articles give you a good, general overview of a topic • Cons: • Encyclopedia articles usually present just the highlights of a topic, they don’t provide comprehensive coverage of the topic • Often, you'll need more detail than an encyclopedia can provide. • Encyclopedias don't always have the latest information about a topic. • They aren't always up-to-date. Sometimes you'll need more current information.
Online Encyclopedias • World Book Advanced • Login: sas, Pass: student • World Book Discover • Login: sas, Pass: student • Canadian Encyclopedia • Know BC
World Book Online • Features of World Book Online: • Updated more frequently than print version • Search Results Includes MANY different types of sources: • Encyclopedia Articles, Images, Sounds, Primary sources, Maps, Tables, Additional Web Links • Save Article Feature • Citation provided at bottom of each article
Research Databases >Current Knowledge/Deeper Research • Research Databases are organized collections of data from different types of reference sources. • Online periodical Articles • E Books • Online Newspaper Articles • Specialized References • Online Encyclopedia Articles • The EBSO and GALE Databases are a good source of information for: • Current knowledge on a topic • Past or recent research on a topic • Critical Thinking questions about a topic – What is the impact? What are the points of view? • They are designed for easy, quick searches and quick, relevant dataretrieval from reliable sources
Why use the Databases? • A Database provides links to reliable, comprehensive, up to date sources of information about a topic • Since Databases contain links to many different types of sources, they can provide access to General > Focused and > Specific Knowledge • A database can link you to many GOOD Informationsources: • Credible: Information is from professionals or experts in the field, and credentials are included • Accurate: Contain ONLY Information from reviewed published works, and facts are checked • Reliable: Information is factual, and generally from non-biased sources. • Current: information is updated frequently • Comprehensive: Provides links to many different sources on the topic, many of which provide detailed, in-depth coverage • Source Citation: Full citation information is provided
Database vs. Web Search • Contains ONLY information from reviewed, fact-checked published works • Information is from professionals or experts in the field • Information is updated frequently • More search options • Easy to narrow down topic • Citation information provided • Different types of databases for specific topics • Authorship is often Uncertain • Content often Unverified, and not reviewed • Search options are often limited • Information often does not meet specific research needs • CitationInformationis often unavailable • Often contains a lot of irrelevant information • Frequently out of date
EBSCO Databases @ SAS • EBSCO Host • login: saspassword: student • A Research database with full-text content from many different sources: journals, books, reports, ebooks, publications • Canadian Points of View • Access to Canadian points of view from different sources, including magazines, newspapers, journals, reference books, and even radio and t.v. • Consumer Health Complete • Access to medical-related articles, information, images, videos, and news
Gale Databases @ SAS Password: student • CPI.Q • A database of articles from Canadian journals, magazines, biographies, and other sources with a Canadian Focus • Gale Virtual Reference Library • A database of specialized encyclopedias and references • Global Issues in Context • International viewpoints on global issues, topics and current events from various reference sources
Academic Journals • A Scholarly Journal is a periodical, in which articles relating to a particular academic field are published. • Articles are reviewed and edited by peers (experts in that field) • The articles may contain original research, review articles, and/or book reviews. • The authors are usually experts in their fields, and their credentials are always provided • Bibliographic source information is always provided • Academic Journals are a reliable source of information for research.
Academic Journals • Pros: • Articles from Scholarly Journals can be rich in facts, and very comprehensive • Often, they are even more detailed than books. • The information in Scholarly Journal articles is usually very up-to-date. • Cons: • Articles in Scholarly Journals are often focused on VERY SPECIFIC topics, and it can sometimes be difficult to find an article relevant to your Research • Using Databases to search for Journal Articles can sometimes be difficult to figure out
Electronic Journals at SAS • You can access content from many different Electronic Journal articles through the Electronic Research Tools at the SAS library • EBSCO Host • Canadian Points of View • Consumer Health Complete • CPI.Q • Global Issues in Context
Newspapers The World Book Discover Site provides access to Online World Newspapers • Pros: • Newspaper articles are usually Current • You usually can't get much more up-to-date than a daily newspaper. • Cons: • Newspaper coverage isn't as complete as the coverage in other sources • Often there isn't enough detail in a newspaper article • Newspapers tend to present the highlights of a topic. • Newspapers can contain quite a bit of BIAS and Opinion • Newspapers are not usually reliable sources of factual information • The Information from a newspaper MUST always be verified with other sources
World Wide Web • Pros: • Some websites are very reliable • Some Websites cover their topic in great detail • Many Websites are updated regularly • Cons: • There is no consistency in the usefulness of Websites as a source • EVERY Website you use must be judged and evaluated, in order to determine it’s usefulness as a Source • Many websites are meant to sell, persuade or entertain, and not inform • Anyone can publish on the web, so there are no checks and Balances • The best Web sites to use are ones that are meant to inform you
Books • Non-Fiction books are usually a good, comprehensive reliable source of information. However, sometimes finding an appropriate Non-Fiction book in a smaller library, can be a daunting task. Large collections of Non-Fiction books have become a rare commodity in libraries, because they very expensive and they become out-of-date quickly, If you can find a book on your topic, you must then determine if it covers enough details about a specific topic to be relevant. • Pros: • Books are usually a reliable source, as long as the purpose of the book is to inform. • Books are usually complete sources - they usually cover their topic thoroughly. • Cons: • Books are sometimes out-of-date. • Always check to see when your book was written before using it as a report source. • If it's more than a few years old, it may be missing some new information that you'll want to know about
eBooks • Non-Fiction Ebooks are a good alternative to print books, as they can be updated more frequently, and don’t require storage space • You can access many different FREE informational Ebooksthrough the World Book Discover site
Research Tools @ SAS Many different useful Research Tools can be found on the WB Discover or WB Advanced sites • Atlas • Citation Builder • Dictionary • Ebooks Center • Explore BC • Explore the World • Primary Sources • Today in History • Visual Dictionary • World Newspapers