International Centre for Guidance Studies Who are ‘vulnerable’ young people? Nicki Moore Lecturer in Career Development
Aim The workshop: • Examines the requirements under the Education Act 2011 for Local Authorities to provide career guidance and support to ‘assist the most vulnerable young people and those at risk of disengaging with education or work’, • Explores what is meant by the term ‘vulnerable’ young people, • Provides evidence based examples of approaches
Overview • What are Local Authorities requirements under the Education Act? • Who are disadvantaged and vulnerable young people? • What are their barriers to progression? • What services have been implemented to support them? • How effective is this provision
Research used to inform this workshop • Hutchinson, J., Rolfe, H., Moore, N., Bysshe, S., &Bentley, K. (2010). All things being equal? Equality and diversity in careers education, information, advice and guidance. EHRC. Manchester • Hutchinson, J., Korzieniewski, R., Evans, M., & Collingwood, C., (2011) Career learning Journeys of Derby and Derbyshire NEETs. East Midlands Improvement and Efficiency Partnership.
Context for careers work in 2013: Equality United Nations Declaration on Human Rights Article 1. • All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights. They are endowed with reason and conscience and should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood. Article 21(section 2) • Everyone has the right of equal access to public service in his country.
Context for careers work in 2013: Education Act 2011 New duties on schools and Local Authorities for CEIAG Local Authorities required to provide career guidance and support to ‘assist the most vulnerable young people And those at risk of disengaging with education or work’
Context for careers work 2013 • Local Authorities are not alone in tackling the issues of youth unemployment and disadvantage • Other emerging players include Local Enterprise Partnerships (LEPs) who are in part tasked with working with local employers, Jobcentre Plus and learning providers to help local workless people into jobs.
Context for careers work 2013 The new duties on Local Authorities to provide career development and support should also be seen in the context of The Equality Act (2010) which gives new duties on those providing public Services.
Context for careers work 2013 • The duty came into force in April 2011 and covers • age, • disability, • gender, • gender reassignment, • pregnancy and maternity, • race, • religion or belief and • sexual orientation. • The duty applies in England, Scotland and in Wales and includes all education providers
Muddled terminology • Vulnerable • Disengaged • Disadvantaged • Pre-NEETS • RONI’s • At risk • Low achieving • Under-aspiring • Not participating • Temporarily disconnected
Who are vulnerable and disadvantaged young people? • young people are those between the ages of 11-19 (and 25 where a young person has learning difficulties or disabilities) • No agreed definition of what constitutes vulnerable or disadvantaged • Estimates suggest that the group could represent up to 45% of all young people. • Where young people have barriers which put them at a disadvantage in comparison to the majority of their peer group they are less likely to make a successful transition to adult working life
Who are vulnerable and disadvantaged young people? • Groups who experience disability or learning difficulties, • those from minority ethnic groups, • Those who experience poverty, • Engage in early sexual activity, and • Engage in criminal behaviour, are more likely to become NEET however……
What barriers do young people actually face in making sustained transitions to learning and work? • NEET research revealed that NEET young people were not an homogenous group • Whilst certain factors were more likely to contribute to a person becoming NEET there were additional factors which often go unrecognised
NEET does not just happen... • Research highlights factors that contribute to NEET... • Health issues • Complex family relationships • Moving house / homelessness • Bullying (victim or perpetrator or both) • Death of a close relative • Parenthood
Careers services are important • Young people who become NEET have aspirations and do not wish to remain NEET • The NEETS research showed a large number of this group were using Connexions and were having some positive experiences of this service However • The EHRC study into equality and diversity in CEIAG found that a significant barrier to young people’s progression was the variable and poor quality careers education and guidance received by young people in schools.
What services exist to support vulnerable and disadvantaged young people? The Equality Duty suggests that services will need to meet three broad themes: • Removing or minimising disadvantages suffered by people due to their protected characteristics. • Taking steps to meet the needs of people from protected groups where these are different from the needs of other people. • Encouraging people from protected groups to participate in public life or in other activities where their participation is disproportionately low.
What services exist to support vulnerable and disadvantaged young people? The EHRC research identifies • a range of local policy responses to the need to address the equality issues • responses which were made to certain of the equality strands and often failed to recognise the needs of certain groups such as work with religion or faith groups, those who are LGBT,
What services exist to support vulnerable and disadvantaged young people? The EHRC study explored a range of opportunities and activities on offer which included: • A project which worked with young people on the Autistic Spectrum • A project which was targeted at addressing homophobic bullying and provided confidence and self esteem building. • A project targeting young people identified as potential NEET • A young parents project • A project aimed at addressing gendered choices from primary age.
What services exist to support vulnerable and disadvantaged young people? The following characteristics emerged as effective in supporting vulnerable or disadvantaged groups: • Working in partnership • Strategic commitment to equality and diversity • Linking projects with main stream practice • Involving young people in decision making • Professional development of colleagues • Effective referral processes • Advocacy • Personalisation • Parental involvement • Using role models
How effective are these activities in supporting equality and diversity issues? The study into the career learning journeys of Derby and Derbyshire NEETS found that young people value services which • Ensured that they were treated as adults and individuals • Inspired them • Allowed them to mix with new groups of people and make new friends • Gave them a sense of achievement • Provided continuation and consistency • Provided access to available opportunities
How effective are these activities in supporting equality and diversity issues? The study into the career learning journeys of Derby and Derbyshire NEETS found that young people did not like services which: • Did not take them seriously • Involved long and costly journeys to access learning and work • Appeared to judge on appearance • Imposed pressures with out support.
Re-engaging the hardest to reach young people ‘Services are most successful in helping disengaged or at risk of becoming disengaged when they are consistent, personalised and comprehensive’. Local Government Association 2013
Conclusions • The group described as ‘vulnerable’ is elastic. • CEAIG is important • CEIAG needs to start early and be comprehensive • Young people need access to independent advocacy and support whilst still at school to help resolve crises and facilitate transitions. • Schools should have a range of policies to support vulnerable young people such as those on bullying, those with health issues, young carers and those dealing with the death of a close relative. These policies should recognise the differentiated careers support requirements for these groups of young people. • Careers services should be personalised and provide consistent support
THANK YOU Nicki Moore firstname.lastname@example.org 01332 591267