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Chapter 19 Chemical Thermodynamics - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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Chemistry: The Central Science , 10th edition Theodore L. Brown, H. Eugene LeMay, Jr., and Bruce E. Bursten. Chapter 19 Chemical Thermodynamics. Todd Austell, The University of North Carolina  2006, Pearson Prentice Hall. Yes. Nonspontaneous processes can never occur.

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slide1

Chemistry: The Central Science, 10th edition

Theodore L. Brown, H. Eugene LeMay, Jr., and Bruce E. Bursten

Chapter 19

Chemical Thermodynamics

Todd Austell, The University of North Carolina

 2006, Pearson Prentice Hall

slide2

Yes. Nonspontaneous processes can never occur.

  • No. Nonspontaneous processes can occur with some external assistance.
slide3

Yes. Nonspontaneous processes can never occur.

  • No. Nonspontaneous processes can occur with some external assistance.
slide4

Yes

  • No
slide5

Yes

  • No
slide6

The value of S actually does not change with q, just the magnitude of Sinitial and Sfinal.

  • S depends not merely on q but on qrev. There is only one reversible isothermal path between two states regardless of the number of possible paths.
  • S’s dependence on q is negligible.
  • q depends on H which is a state function.
slide7

The value of S actually does not change with q, just the magnitude of Sinitial and Sfinal.

  • S depends not merely on q but on qrev. There is only one reversible isothermal path between two states regardless of the number of possible paths.
  • S’s dependence on q is negligible.
  • q depends on H which is a state function.
slide8

The enthalpy of the system must increase by a greater amount than the entropy of the system decreases.

  • The entropy of the universe for the process must increase by the same amount as the entropy of the system decreases.
  • The entropy of the universe for the process must increase by a greater amount than the entropy of the system decreases.
  • The entropy of the universe for the process must decrease by a greater amount than the entropy of the system decreases.
slide9

The enthalpy of the system must increase by a greater amount than the entropy of the system decreases.

  • The entropy of the universe for the process must increase by the same amount as the entropy of the system decreases.
  • The entropy of the universe for the process must increase by a greater amount than the entropy of the system decreases.
  • The entropy of the universe for the process must decrease by a greater amount than the entropy of the system decreases.
slide10

Molecules and single atoms can experience all the same types of motion.

  • A molecule can vibrate (atoms moving relative to one another) and rotate (tumble); a single atom can do neither
  • A molecule can vibrate (atoms moving relative to one another) and rotate (tumble); a single atom can only rotate.
  • A molecule can translationally move and rotate (tumble); a single atom can do neither.
slide11

Molecules and single atoms can experience all the same types of motion.

  • A molecule can vibrate (atoms moving relative to one another) and rotate (tumble); a single atom can do neither
  • A molecule can vibrate (atoms moving relative to one another) and rotate (tumble); a single atom can only rotate.
  • A molecule can translationally move and rotate (tumble); a single atom can do neither.
slide12

S = 0

  • S < H
  • S = W
  • S > H
slide13

S = 0

  • S < H
  • S = W
  • S > H
slide14

It is a substance at the triple point.

  • It is pure liquid at 0°K (absolute zero).
  • It is an elemental standard state.
  • It must be a perfect crystal at 0°K (absolute zero).
slide15

It is a substance at the triple point.

  • It is pure liquid at 0°K (absolute zero).
  • It is an elemental standard state.
  • It must be a perfect crystal at 0°K (absolute zero).
slide16

always increase

  • always decrease
  • sometimes increase and sometimes decrease, depending on the process
slide17

always increase

  • always decrease
  • sometimes increase and sometimes decrease, depending on the process
slide18

Entropy of universe increases and free energy of the system decreases.

  • Entropy of system decreases and free energy of the universe increases.
  • Entropy of system increases and free energy of the universe decreases.
  • Entropy of universe decreases and free energy of the system increases.
slide19

Entropy of universe increases and free energy of the system decreases.

  • Entropy of system decreases and free energy of the universe increases.
  • Entropy of system increases and free energy of the universe decreases.
  • Entropy of universe decreases and free energy of the system increases.
slide20

It indicates the process is spontaneous under standard conditions.

  • It indicates the process has taken place under standard conditions.
  • It indicates the process has taken place at 273K and 1 barr.
  • It indicates the process has taken place at 1 atm and 0K.
slide21

It indicates the process is spontaneous under standard conditions.

  • It indicates the process has taken place under standard conditions.
  • It indicates the process has taken place at 273K and 1 barr.
  • It indicates the process has taken place at 1 atm and 0K.
slide22

H = TS

  • H < TS
  • H > TS
  • We cannot determine without additional information.
slide23

H = TS

  • H < TS
  • H > TS
  • We cannot determine without additional information.