Geothermal projects in Iceland. Ólafur G. Flóvenz General director of ISOR Presentation at “Geothermal Energy - Benefits and Potential” an event in Brussels on February 1st 2008 during European Union Sustainable Energy Week. The heat comes from from decay of radioactive material.
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Ólafur G. Flóvenz
General director of ISOR
Presentation at “Geothermal Energy - Benefits and Potential”
an event in Brussels on February 1st 2008during
European Union Sustainable Energy Week
0.1% of the energy that is stored in Earth’s crust could satisfy the world energy consumption for 10.000 years.
~ 30 °C/km
> 1000 °C
> 3000 °C
> 5000 °CThe internal heat of the Earth
World Energy Assessment 2000
The geothermal energy resource is huge
but we have technical problems to harness it.
Source: WEC 2007 Survey of Energy Resources, 427-437. World Energy Council 2007 (www.worldenergy.org)
How can we extract and utilize the geothermal heat for sustainable energy production with low environmental impact?
Photo: Anette K. Mortensen
Three main types of geothermal fields for electricity production:
High temperature fields
Medium temperature fields
Low temperature fields
We distinguish between:
Conventional geothermal systems
Unconventional geothermal systems
200 – 350°C
Depth: 1 – 3 km
Related to volcanism and plate boundaries
Suitible for electricity production with conventional turbines
Nesjavellir, Iceland. 300°C fluid used to produce electricity
1 – 5 km
Mostly found in deep sedimentary basins around the world as well as in volcanic areas
High flowrates necessary for electricity
Binary systems needed for electricity production
Húsavík, Iceland. 124°C water used to produce electricity
Below 100 °C
At 1 – 3 km depth
Mostly found in sedimentary basins and fracture zones around the world
Suitible for space heating, balneology, fish farming etc.
Photo: Sigurdur Sveinn Jónsson
Photo: Ingavar Birgir Friðleifsson
Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS)
Supercritical Geothermal Systems (SGS)
Artificially enhanced permeability
Cost of house heating conventionalin the Nordic countries
Source: Samorka, Iceland
Before geothermal space heating: Reykjavik in 1933 covered with smoke from coal heatings,
With geothermal space heating: Reykjavik in 2008, almost same view but without visible air pollution
+ 400 MW 2015
+ 400 MW before 2015
+ 200 MW before 2015 ?
Favourable geological conditions conventional
Photo:GOF-9. March 2001, 11:35:48
Photo: Emil Thor
Photo: Gudmundur Steingrímsson