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Eye Tracking in Information Computer Science What information are people “seeing” when your web page pops up? By Shirley Retz
Introduction to Eye Tracking • Eye tracking is the process of measuring either the point of gaze (where one is looking) or the motion of an eye relative to the head. • Eye tracking machines allows us to track the visual path of a person’s eye.
What is Being Tracked • Gaze direction and gaze point. • Eye-presence detection • Eye position • User identification • Eye closure • Eye movements and patterns • Pupil size and pupil dilation
Why is this Information Useful? • Improves user interfaces • Helps us to understand human behavior • Used in behavioral research and human response testing • Useful in medical diagnostics • Used in automotive and defensive industries to improve safety • The list continues to grow as researchers come up with more and more creative ways to use these devices.
Eye Tracking in Research • Designing Noticeable Bricklets by Tracking Users’ Eye Movemnets • Djamasbi, S., Siegel, M., & Tullis,T. (2012).
Investigation and Hypothesis • Recent research indicates that examining users’ viewing behaviors by tracking their eye movements is a useful method website designs. • Size, graphics, color, and location of information has an effect on how quickly information is seen and utilized by a user. • The focus of this study was on the design of bricklets, areas on a page that have spicific useful information making navigation faster and easier for a user.
Participants • N= 40 (15 male, 25 female) • Various disciplines (business, legal, technology, sales, administrative) • Age= 23-60 • Conducted as a between subjects study. Each group of participants saw only one prototype in each pair (S1 or S2, but not both) • Presented in randomized order
Procedure • 8 web page prototypes (4 pairs) • Each pair of prototypes differed only in one section: the bricklet under investigation
Procedure • Participants were then asked to complete a set of tasks that were directly associated with the bricklet under investigation. • Ie. “You would like to start receiving emails. Where would you go to start the process?” • Answers to these tasks were located within the designated bricklets.
Results • Size: significant difference was not found in relation to size of bricklet • Graphic: Users noticed the bricklet with the graphic faster than the bricklet without the graphic. • Color: Bricklets without contrasting background color was noticed faster. • Location: No significant difference between the position (left or right ) of the bricklet.
Discussion • Eye tracking was useful in this study to: • Determine where the participant looked • How quickly they were able to find information needed (how fast their eye navigated to the correct information) • Eye fixations (how long a participant looked at any given area. • It provided useful information into the insight of visual attention of participants viewing habits
Most of our evaluations are done so quickly, that our decisions become unconscious. Eye tracking allows some insight into these split decision processes. • It also provides researchers with useful information as to what we are attending to and processing.