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ECSE 602 Instructional Programming for Infants and Young Children with Disabilities. This week ’ s topics: Embedded learning opportunities (ELO) and Child-focused instructional strategies (CFIS) Material selection and prompting strategies.

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ecse 602 instructional programming for infants and young children with disabilities

ECSE 602Instructional Programming for Infants and Young Children with Disabilities

This week’s topics:

Embedded learning opportunities (ELO) and Child-focused instructional strategies (CFIS)

Material selection and prompting strategies

Dr. Y. Xu

embedded learning opportunities elo sandall swartz 2008
Embedded Learning Opportunities (ELO) (Sandall & Swartz, 2008)
  • What are ELO?
    • Short, well thought out and planned teaching; episodes that occur within activities and routines
  • Why use ELO?
    • No big changes in classroom activities or routines;
    • Child is motivated because instruction is around their interests;
    • Increased ability to independently use new skills and skills are easily generalized because skills are taught within a meaningful, relevant context.

Dr. Y. Xu

child focused instructional strategies cfis sandall swartz 2008
Child-focused Instructional Strategies (CFIS) (Sandall & Swartz, 2008)

What are CFIS?

Short, well thought out, planned and intensive teaching episodes that require direct, explicit instruction during a specific time

Why use CFIS?

The child’s objective is unique

Child must learn the skill to take advantage of the general early childhood curriculum (e.g., establishing joint attention, imitating, playing with toys)

To become as independent as possible (preschool survival skills)

Child is making very slow progress

Dr. Y. Xu

elo and cfis sandall swartz 2008
ELO and CFIS (Sandall & Swartz, 2008)

How do you design an ELO? (Chapter 6)

How do you design a CFIS? (Chapter 7)

Dr. Y. Xu

material selection
Material selection
  • Background assumptions
    • Characteristics of objects affect levels of interest
    • The developmental level of the child affects level of interest and action patterns

Dr. Y. Xu

material selection1
Material selection
  • Novelty
    • The individual child’s past experiences with an object will affect interest level and this determine, in part, his willingness to “engage” the object or materials. For every child there is an optimal level of novelty.

Dr. Y. Xu

material selection2
Material selection
  • Responsivity
    • What an object does in response to a child’s effort to manipulate it will determine, in part, his/her continued interest. For every child there is an optimal level of responsivity. Materials may be responsive in terms of any (or all) sensory dimensions.

Dr. Y. Xu

slide8

Material Selection

P

E

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F

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M

A

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C

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RESPONSIVITY

Optimal level

Dr. Y. Xu

material selection3
Material Selection
  • Complexity
    • A child’s interest in an object will, in part, be determined by the number of turns and angles in the contours of the object. For every child there is an optimal level of complexity.

Dr. Y. Xu

material selection4
Material Selection
  • Difficulty
    • The level of difficulty should be between their current level and potential level. Children will be highly motivated when the material is appropriately challenging, but not overwhelming.

Dr. Y. Xu

prompting strategies
Prompting strategies
  • Fundamental areas that teachers must know to implement successful instruction in inclusive classes:
    • what to teach
    • how to teach (what instructional strategies to use)
    • when to teach (in what sequence)
    • whether their teaching is working

Dr. Y. Xu

prompting strategies1
Prompting strategies
  • Prompts
    • Antecedent events that help to initiate a

response. They come before a response is

performed and are designed to facilitate its

performance. When the prompt does result in the

target response, the target response may be

reinforced.

    • Prompts should be given in the least intrusive way, and with the intention of fading them as soon as possible.

Dr. Y. Xu

prompting strategies2
Prompting strategies
  • Prompting & Fading
    • Fading: the gradual removal of a prompt.
    • Abrupt removal of prompt: response may no longer be performed.
    • Prompts may be progressively reduced and finally omitted.
    • Not all prompts needed to be faded.

Dr. Y. Xu

prompting strategies3
Prompting strategies

Least-to-most prompting

  • Verbal
  • Gestural
  • Partial physical assistance
  • Full physical assistance

Dr. Y. Xu

prompting strategies4
Prompting strategies

Most-to-least prompting

  • Physically assist the student to do the task.
  • Then give what physical assistance is necessary to complete the task.
  • Give a gesture, or model the task, so that the student can copy the action.
  • Give a direct verbal prompt, such as: "Pick up your pen."
  • Give an indirect verbal prompt, such as: "What do you do next?"

Dr. Y. Xu

prompting strategies5
Prompting strategies
  • Graduated guidance
    • a less structured strategy of reducing prompts
  • Cue
    • a prompt that directs attention to a specific dimension of an object/task

Dr. Y. Xu