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Organisation wissenschaftlicher Forschung (II). I Wie funktioniert Wissenschaft? - Publizieren, Artikel, Konferenzen - Persönliche Fähigkeiten, Fertigkeiten - meine eigene Persönlichkeit, Networking , Personenführung II What does Research mean ?

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OrganisationwissenschaftlicherForschung (II)

I Wie funktioniert Wissenschaft?

- Publizieren, Artikel, Konferenzen

- Persönliche Fähigkeiten, Fertigkeiten

- meine eigene Persönlichkeit, Networking, Personenführung

II Whatdoes Research mean?

- Topic: whatis a good topicforresearch?

- Howdoesone do research?

- How do researchgroupsoperate?

- Howcan I selectthe right researchgroupforme? 

III Wissenschaftliche Ethik

- Korrekte Dokumentation von Forschungsergebnissen

- Geheimhaltung

- Publizieren: Autorenliste, korrektes Zitieren

- Wissenschaftliches Fehlverhalten anhand von Beispiele 

IV Karriereformen in der Wissenschaft bzw. Industrie

- Was bedeutet eine wissenschaftliche Karriere?

- Arbeitsalltag in der Industrie oder Start-up-Unternehmen

- Typische Hierarchien, Stipendiensysteme

- Wie bekomme ich Empfehlungsschreiben?

Organisation wissenschaftl. Forschung



Where Good Ideas Come From: The Natural History of Innovation by Steven Johnson


2. Collect hunches ready to be stitched together later

3. Connect your hunches with the hunches of others

4. Good ideas come from not just many but many diverseminds

5. Make space for hunches to incubate

Organisation wissenschaftl. Forschung


What means doing a PhD?


The Basics

A Doctor of Philosophy degree, abbreviated Ph.D., is the highest academic degree anyone can earn (VH: in US. In other countries, one can put a habilitation on top).

Because earning a Ph.D. requires extended study and intense intellectual effort,

less than one percent of the population attains the degree (VH: in US).

Society shows respect for a person who holds a Ph.D. by addressing them with the title ``Doctor''.

To earn a Ph.D., one must accomplish two things.

(1)One must master a specific subject completely.

(2) One must extend the body of knowledge about that subject.

Organisation wissenschaftl. Forschung


Mastering a Subject

Usually, in preparing for Ph.D. work in a given field, a student must earn both a Bachelor's and Master's degree in that field or in a closely related field.

To master a subject, a student searches the published literature to find and read everything that has been written about the subject.

In scientific disciplines, a student begins by studying general reference works such as text books.

Eventually, the student must also search scholarly journals, the publications that scientists use to exchange information and record reports of their scientific investigations.

Organisation wissenschaftl. Forschung


Extending Knowledge

The essence of a Ph.D., the aspect that distinguishes Ph.D. study from other academic work, can be summarized in a single word: research.

To extend knowledge, one must explore, investigate, and contemplate.

… research is more than mere experiments -- it means interpretation and deep understanding.

For Computer Scientists, research means searching to uncover the principles that underlie digital computation and communication. A researcher must discover new techniques that aid in building or using computational mechanisms.

Researchers look for new abstractions, new approaches, new algorithms, new principles, or new mechanisms.

To complete a Ph.D., each student must present results from their research to the faculty in a lengthy, formal document called a dissertation(or thesis). The student must then submit their dissertation to the faculty and defend their work in an oral examination.

Organisation wissenschaftl. Forschung


A few questions to ask yourself

1. Do you want a research career?

Before enrolling in a Ph.D. program, you should carefully consider your long-term goals.

Because earning a Ph.D. is training for research, you should ask yourself whether a research position is your long-term goal.

If it is, a Ph.D. degree is the standard path to your chosen career

(a few people have managed to obtain a research position without a Ph.D., but they are the exception, not the rule).

If, however, you want a non-research career, a Ph.D. is definitely (VH: likely) not for you.

Organisation wissenschaftl. Forschung


A few questions to ask yourself

2. Do you want an academic position?

A Ph.D. is the de facto ``union card'' for an academic position.

Although it is possible to obtain an academic position without a Ph.D., the chances are low.

Major universities require each member of their faculty to hold a Ph.D. and to engage in research activities.

Why? To insure that the faculty have sufficient expertise to teach advanced courses and to force faculty to remain current in their chosen field.

Organisation wissenschaftl. Forschung


A few questions to ask yourself

3. Do you have what it takes?

It is difficult for an individual to assess their own capabilities.

The following guidelines and questions may be of help.


In your college and graduate courses, were you closer to the top of your class or the bottom?

Time: Are you prepared to tackle a project larger than any you have undertaken before?

You must commit to multiple years of hard work.

Are you willing to reduce or forego other activities?

Organisation wissenschaftl. Forschung


Do you have what it takes?


Research discoveries often arise when one looks at old facts in a new way.

Do you shine when solving problems?

Do you like ``brain teasers'' and similar puzzles? Are you good at solving them?

In school, did you find advanced mathematics enjoyable or difficult?

Intense curiosity:

Have you always been compelled to understand the world around you and to find out how things work?

A natural curiosity makes research easier.

Organisation wissenschaftl. Forschung


Do you have what it takes?


Most students are unprepared for Ph.D. study.

They find it unexpectedly different than course work.

Suddenly thrust into a world in which no one knows the answers, students sometimes flounder.

Can you adapt to new ways of thinking?

Can you tolerate searching for answers even when no one knows the precisequestions?

Organisation wissenschaftl. Forschung


Do you have what it takes?


By the time a student finishes an undergraduate education, they have become accustomed to receiving grades for each course each semester.

In a Ph.D. program, work is not divided neatly into separate courses,

professors do not partition tasks into little assignments,

and the student does not receive a grade for each small step.

Are you self-motivated enough to keep working toward a goal without day-to-day encouragement?

Organisation wissenschaftl. Forschung


Do you have what it takes?


If you choose to enroll in a Ph.D. program, you will compete with others at the top.

More important, once you graduate, your peers will include some of the brightest people in the world.

You will be measured and judged in comparison to them.

Are you willing to compete at the Ph.D. level?

Organisation wissenschaftl. Forschung


Do you have what it takes?


Compared to coursework, which is carefully planned by a teacher, Ph.D. study has less structure.

You will have more freedom to set your own goals, determine your daily schedule, and follow interesting ideas.

Are you prepared to accept the responsibility that accompanies the additional freedoms?

Your success or failure in Ph.D. research depends on it.

Organisation wissenschaftl. Forschung


A few warnings

Students sometimes enroll in a Ph.D. program for the wrong reasons.

After a while, such students find that the requirements overwhelm them.

Before starting one should realize that a Ph.D. is not:

Prestigious in itself

A guarantee of respect for all your opinions

A goal in itself

A job guarantee

A practical way to impress your family or friends

Something you can ``try'' to find out how smart you are

The only research topic you will ever pursue

Easier than entering the work force

Better than the alternatives

A way to make more money

One must choose research because one loves it;

a Ph.D. is not the optimum road to wealth.

Organisation wissenschaftl. Forschung


The good news

Despite all our warnings, we (the CS-faculty at Purdue) are proud that we earned Ph.D. degrees and proud of our research accomplishments.

If you have the capability and interest, a research career can bring rewards unequaled in any other profession.

You will meet and work with some of the brightest people on the planet.

You will reach for ideas beyond your grasp, and in so doing extend your intellectual capabilities.

You will solve problems that have not been solved before.

You will explore concepts that have not been explored.

You will uncover principles that change the way people use computers

(VH: in our case, that change the way how people use / interpret biological data).

Organisation wissenschaftl. Forschung


The joy of research

A colleague summed up the way many researchers feel about their profession.

When asked why he spent so many hours in the lab,

he noted that the alternatives were to go home,

where he would do the same things that millions of others were doing,

or to work in his lab,

where he could discover things that no other human had ever discovered.

The smile on his face told the story: for him, working on research was sheer joy.

Also important (for me): independence

Organisation wissenschaftl. Forschung


Ten Rules for Doing Your Best Research

Rule 1: Drop Modesty

...“Say to yourself: ‘Yes, I wouldlike to do first-classwork.'

Oursocietyfrowns on peoplewhoset out to do really good work.

Butyoushouldsay to yourself: ‘Yes, I wouldlike to do somethingsignificant.'”

Rule 2: PrepareYourMind

Manythinkthatgreatscienceistheresult of good luck, butluckisnothingbutthemarriage of opportunity and preparation. ...

Rule 3: Age IsImportant

Einstein didthingsveryearly, and all the “quantummechanicfellows,” as well as mostmathematicians and astrophysicists, were “disgustinglyyoung” whentheydidtheir best work. ...

In thefields of music, politics, and literature, theprotagonistsoftenproducewhatweconsidertheir best worklate in life.

Organisation wissenschaftl. Forschung


Ten Rules for Doing Your Best Research

Rule 4: Brains Are Not Enough, You Also Need Courage

Great scientistshavemorethan just brainpower. ...

“Onceyougetyourcourage up and believethatyoucan do importantthings, thenyoucan. Ifyouthinkyoucan't, almostsurelyyouare not going to.

Great scientists will goforwardunderincrediblecircumstances; theythink and continue to think.”

Rule 5: Makethe Best of YourWorkingConditions

… peopleareoftenmostproductivewhenworkingconditionsare bad.

… “Itis a poorworkmanwhoblames his tools—the good man gets on withthe job, givenwhathe'sgot, and getsthe best answer he can.”

Organisation wissenschaftl. Forschung


Ten Rules for Doing Your Best Research

Rule 6: Work Hard and Effectively

Most greatscientistshavetremendousdrive... …

Giventwopeoplewithexactlythe same ability, theonepersonwhomanagesday in and day out to get in onemorehour of thinking will betremendouslymoreproductiveover a lifetime.”

But … hardworkaloneis not enough—it must beappliedsensibly.

Rule 7: Believe and DoubtYourHypothesis at the Same Time

Great scientiststolerateambiguity.

Theybelievethetheoryenough to goahead;

theydoubtitenough to noticetheerrors and faults

so theycanstepforward and createthenewreplacementtheory. ..

Organisation wissenschaftl. Forschung


Ten Rules for Doing Your Best Research

Rule 8: Work on theImportant Problems in YourField

Itissurprisingbuttruethattheaveragescientistspendsalmost all his time working on problemsthat he believesnot to beimportantand not to belikely to lead to importantresults.

Bycontrast, thoseseeking to do greatwork must ask:

“Whataretheimportantproblems of myfield?

Whatimportantproblems am I working on?”

“… Ifyouwant to do greatwork, youclearly must work on importantproblems. . . .

Organisation wissenschaftl. Forschung


Ten Rules for Doing Your Best Research

Rule 9: Be Committed to Your Problem

Scientistswhoarenotfullycommitted to theirproblemseldomproducefirst-classwork. To a large extent, creativitycomes out of thesubconscious.

Ifyouaredeeplyimmersed in and committed to a topic, dayafterday, yoursubconscious has nothing to do butwork on yourproblem.

… whenyouhave a real importantproblemyoudon'tletanythingelsegetthecenter of yourattention—youkeepyourthoughts on theproblem. ..

Organisation wissenschaftl. Forschung


Ten Rules for Doing Your Best Research

Rule 10: LeaveYourDoor Open

Keepingthedoor to yourofficeclosedmakesyoumoreproductive in theshortterm.

But ten yearslater, somehowyoumay not quiteknowwhatproblemsareworthworking on, and all thehardworkyou do will be “sort of tangential” in importance.

He (orshe) wholeavesthedoor open gets all kinds of interruptions, but he (orshe) also occasionallygetsclues as to whattheworldis and whatmightbeimportant.

.. peoplewhoworkwithdoorsclosedoftenworkharder. (But) somehowtheyseem to work on slightlythewrongthing….

Organisation wissenschaftl. Forschung


Ten Rules for Doing Your Best Research


Rule 11: Pick upsuccessfulstrategiesfromothers, avoidtheirmistakes.

Rule 12: Acceptadvicefromothers (yourfriends, mentor, reviewers ….)

Organisation wissenschaftl. Forschung


Ten Simple Rules for Graduate Students

Rule 1: Let Passion Be theDriving Force of YourSuccess

… yourheart and thenyourheadshoulddictatewhatthesisprojectmakes sense to embark on.

Doingyour best workrequiresthatyouarepassionateaboutwhatyouaredoing.

Graduate schoolis an investment of up to a seven-yearcommitment(in US, in Germany 3-5 years) a significantchunk of your life. Usethe time wisely. …

Research isvery different fromsimplytakingcourses.

Ifyoudo not feelexcitedaboutdoingresearch and theprojectselected, do not do it; reevaluateyourcareerdecisions.

Organisation wissenschaftl. Forschung


Rule 2: Select the Right Mentor, Project, and Laboratory

Findingthe right mentorcanbehardsinceitis not alwayspossible to knowthekind of mentoringthatisgoing to work best foryouuntilyouactually start doingresearch.

Some of uslike to workindependently, otherslikesignificantfeedback and supervision.

Talk to otherstudents in thelaboratory and gettheirimpressions of howtheprincipleinvestigator'smentoringworksfor them.

In a large laboratory, chancesareyou will getlessdirectmentoringfromtheprincipleinvestigator. In thatcase, othersenior scientistsin thelaboratorybecomeimportant.

Whatmentoringaretheylikely to offer?

Judge, as best youcan, iftheoverallenvironment will workforyou.

Organisation wissenschaftl. Forschung


Ten Simple Rules for Graduate Students

A keyelementisthestanding of yourmentor in his or her scientificfield.

Whenyougraduate, thelaboratoryyougraduatefromisgoing to play a role in determiningwhatopportunitiesexistforyourpostdoctoralwork,

either in academia, industry, orothersectors.


If he orsheis not, youhavethewrongmentorand/orproject.

Atthe same time, bewarethat such enthusiasm, however senior thementor,

maybemisplaced as far as yourinterestsareconcerned.

Gauge thenovelty of theresearchproject and potential for high-quality publicationsbydoingyourownbackground check throughreadingpreviouslypublishedresearch and talking to otherscientists in relatedareas.

Organisation wissenschaftl. Forschung


Rule 3: Independent Thinking is a Mark of a True Scientist

Regardlessof yourinitialworkhabits and howmuchyoudepend on yourmentor, eventuallyyou will have to bemoreindependentthanwhenyoustartedgraduateschool.

The earlieryou start on thatpath to independencethebetter.

Independence will play a criticalpart in yourcareer as an innovative scientist.

As much as possibledefineyourownresearchprojectwith a view to make a significant and uniquescientificcontribution.

(VH: Youshouldread a lotofgoodpapers!)

Organisation wissenschaftl. Forschung


Rule 4: Remember, Life is All about Balance

Take the time to meetyourownneeds.

Graduate schoolishighlydemanding, bothmentally and physically.

Yourhealthcomesfirst, spend the time beinghealthyorelseyoumight find yourselfspendingmore time being sick.

Hard workshouldbebalancedwithotheractivitiesthatyouenjoy and giveyou a break.

These activitiescanoftenbecomeimportant in yourfuturescientificcareer.

Collaborationssometimes start not because of a sharedscientificinterestinitially, but becauseyousharethe same hobbyorotherinterest.

Organisation wissenschaftl. Forschung


Rule 5: Think Ahead and Develop your Professional Career Early

Therearetwoparts to this. The firstpartrelates to professional development.

Being a successfulscientistismoreinvolvedthan just doing good science.

Youneed to beable to write good papers, submitcompellingscholarship and grantapplications, make powerful presentations, and communicate and collaboratewithotherresearchers. … youneedtowork on developingtheseskillsatthe same time asyouwork on yourthesis.

The secondpartinvolvesusingtheseemergentskillstofigure out whatto do withthehigherpostgraduatedegree. Do not waituntilyougraduatetotakethenextstep.

Havea positionand a fellowship, ifpossible, linedupaheadof time.

Organisation wissenschaftl. Forschung


Ten Simple Rules for Graduate Students

Rule 6: RemainFocused on Your Hypothesis WhileAvoidingBeing Held Back

Formulation of thehypothesisisthefirstthingyou'lllearn in Science 101, and yetsomehowitseems to getoccasionallythrown out thewindow.

Whenyou find yourself lost in thedetails of yourresearch, take a step back and remindyourself of thebigpicture.

Revaluateyourhypothesisfrom time to time to seeifit still makes sense, becauseyoumay find yourselfneeding a newone.

Alwayskeepthis in mind in discussionswithyourmentor.

Organisation wissenschaftl. Forschung


Ten Simple Rules for Graduate Students

As youhavethesediscussions, rememberyouarecheaplabor, and, ifyouare a good student, a source of success to yourmentor.

The temptationisthatyourmentor will want to keepyouaround as long as possible.

Definethescope of yourprojectearlywithyourmentor and agreethatthisiswhatyou will attempt to complete in order to receivethedegree.

A careerawaitsyoubeyondthelaboratory of yourgraduatestudentdays.

Do not prolongmoving on to newchallenges.

Organisation wissenschaftl. Forschung


Rule 7: Address Problems Earlier Rather than Later

Ifgraduateschool was not quitewhatyouthoughtitwouldbe, beitscientificallyorotherwise, find out whatyouroptionsare to addresstheproblem.


A good mentoristhere not just to guideyouscientifically, but also in your personal development.

Remember, theyhavebeentherethemselves and havelikelyseensimilarissueswithearlierstudents.

Take time off to reflect on yourfutureifthisisneeded.

A good mentor will understandthatyou come first.

Organisation wissenschaftl. Forschung


Rule 8: Share Your Scientific Success with the World

Beingrecognizedbyyourpeers as someonewhodoes good scienceisimportantbothwithinyourinstitution, nationally, and internationally.

Whenopportunitiesarise to giveseminarsand presentations to othergroups, take them.

Beforestartingwith a mentor, come to an agreement as to when and whatmeetingsyoucanattendlocally and globally.

Scientific meetingsare a fun and fruitfulvenueforexchange.

Besure to venturebeyondthecomfortzone of familiarfaces,

becauseitisimportant to meetothercolleagues in yourfield.

These peoplemaybecomeyourfuturecollaborators, friends, advocates, and employers.

Organisation wissenschaftl. Forschung


Rule 9:Build Confidence and a Thick Skin

… expectyourwork to becriticized and scoffed at ...

The best way to buildself-confidence... is to beprepared and to presentyourworkclearlywith a confidentdisplay of your expansive knowledgebase of the relevant relatedwork.

Do notbeintimidatedbybignameswhoquestionyourwork; counterknowledgewithknowledge.

Anotherreason to have a thickskinisthatthepath to success will notbewithoutsetbacks ....

Undergraduatetrainingisusuallymuchmorestructured and doesnotprepareyoufor such setbacks. Learn as much as youcanfromthesesituationsbothaboutthescience and yourself and move on.

Rule 10: Help Select andSubsequentlyEngageYour Thesis Committee

Organisation wissenschaftl. Forschung


How do Research Groups work?

Ifyouwant to join an ambitiousresearchgroupyoushouldconsiderthat „theboss“ (principalinvestigator = professororgroupleader) mayhavedifferent intereststhanyou.

Probablyhe/she will favormaximal output(publications, gettinggrants and awards).

Also, he gets a piece of thefameifyoubecomeprofessoryourself.

BUT he isprobablynotmuchinterested in whetheryouhave a good work-lifebalance etc.

Maybe he/she will also considerthis as orthogonal to his/her plans.

Organisation wissenschaftl. Forschung