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Chapter 3 The Solar System
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Chapter 3 The Solar System

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  1. Chapter 3 The Solar System Section 3 The Outer Planets Notes 3-4

  2. Outer Planets • First four of the outer planets are called Gas Giants • Also called Jovian Planets • Because they are like Jupiter • Larger and more massive than the inner planets • Far less dense • Made of mostly hydrogen and helium • May have a solid core

  3. Jupiter

  4. Jupiter Fifth planet from the sun Named after Roman king of the gods Mass is twice of the other eight planets combined Orbital period: 12 years Rotation rate: 9hrs 50 mins 63 natural satellites 4 rings

  5. Jupiter • Made mostly of hydrogen = 90% • Liquid metallic hydrogen • Made of ionized protons and electrons under great pressure • Electrical conductor and possibly the cause of its magnetic field • Gets more dense farther into the interior • Made of helium = 10% • Might have a rocky core • 10-15 Earth masses • Temp rises to 30,000°C

  6. Jupiter • Atmosphere • Mixture of hot gases and liquids • Made of ammonia, methane, water vapor and possible sulfur • Winds • Around 400 mph • Extend deep into the planet • Blow in opposite directions in alternating bands

  7. Jupiter • Alternating light and dark bands • Believe the rapid rotation causes the bands • Avg. temp. of atmosphere = -160 °C • Lower layers are 20 °C (around the temp of Earth) • Has lightning and thunderstorms • Even though lightning and methane, ammonia and water vapor are thought to be the beginning of life • NO LIFE

  8. Jupiter • Great Red Spot • Giant rotating storm • 12,000 to 25,000 km • Big enough to hold two earth’s • Has lasted for more than 300 years

  9. Jupiter and Moons in night sky

  10. Io

  11. Io • Named after a nymph that was seduced by Zeus • Made of molten silicate rock (terrestrial) • Most volcanically active place in solar system • Sulfur and sulfur dioxide • Hot spot range from 2000 K to 130 K • Thin atmosphere of sulfur dioxide • No water

  12. Europa

  13. Europa • Made of silicate rock (terrestrial) • Has a thin layer of ice • Looks like sea ice on Earth • Might be liquid water under ice • Dark Streaks • May have been formed by volcanic eruptions of geysers • Oxygen in its thin atmosphere

  14. Ganymede

  15. Ganymede • Largest satellite in solar system • Larger than Mercury • Three different layers • Molten core • Rocky mantle • Icy shell as crust • Oxygen in its thin atmosphere

  16. Callisto

  17. Callisto • 40% ice, 60% rock or iron • Very old surface • Covered in craters • Like moon and Mercury • Oldest surface in solar system • Atmosphere • Made of CO2 • No volcanic activity