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Michigan’s Forests Topic 1104. History of Logging in Michigan Mr. Christensen. Today’s Objectives. Identify characteristics of Michigan’s pre-settlement forests Identify individuals and events that impacted Michigan’s forests Describe Michigan’s Logging era and its aftermath

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michigan s forests topic 1104

Michigan’s ForestsTopic 1104

History of Logging in Michigan

Mr. Christensen

today s objectives
Today’s Objectives
  • Identify characteristics of Michigan’s pre-settlement forests
  • Identify individuals and events that impacted Michigan’s forests
  • Describe Michigan’s Logging era and its aftermath
  • Describe Michigan’s forests today, their economic impact, and how they are managed
the forests of michigan in 1840
The Forests of Michigan in 1840

From:Michigan EPIC Center for Michigan History Studies

—http://michiganepic.org/lumbering/LumberingBriefHistory.html

michigan s logging era
Michigan’s Logging Era
  • 1840’s NewYork’s Forests cannot meet demand
  • From 1869 to 1900 Michigan is NO. 1 in logging
  • Michigan’s lumber value exceeds the value of the California gold rush by 1 Billion $
  • 160 Billion Board Feet (four foot by eight foot stack five times to the moon and back)
slide5
Michigan in 1840

From:Michigan EPIC Center for Michigan History Studies

http://michiganepic.org/lumbering/LumberingBriefHistory.html

michigan logging
Michigan Logging
  • THE TARGET Cork Pine 300 years old 200 feet tall and 5 to 7 feet in diameter
  • Land is $1.25/acre
  • 1862--Homestead Act—160 acres
  • Surveyors
  • Timber Cruisers—look for Pine Groves
logging camps
Logging Camps
  • Two foremen and seventy men
  • 20 teams of horses
  • 7 yoke of oxen
  • Cold Weather Job—ice roads
  • 4:00 AM until Dusk
  • Choppers/Sawyers/River Hogs/Boomers and Jam Crackers
slide8
Shanty Boys

From:Michigan EPIC Center for Michigan History Studies

—http://michiganepic.org/lumbering/LumberingBriefHistory.html

slide9
From:Michigan EPIC Center for Michigan History Studies

—http://michiganepic.org/lumbering/LumberingBriefHistory.html

slide10
Choppers

From:Michigan EPIC Center for Michigan History Studies

—http://michiganepic.org/lumbering/LumberingBriefHistory.html

slide11
From:Michigan EPIC Center for Michigan History Studies

—http://michiganepic.org/lumbering/LumberingBriefHistory.html

slide12
From:Michigan EPIC Center for Michigan History Studies

—http://michiganepic.org/lumbering/LumberingBriefHistory.html

slide13
From:Michigan EPIC Center for Michigan History Studies

—http://michiganepic.org/lumbering/LumberingBriefHistory.html

slide14
Skidders

From:Michigan EPIC Center for Michigan History Studies

—http://michiganepic.org/lumbering/LumberingBriefHistory.html

slide15
From:Michigan EPIC Center for Michigan History Studies

—http://michiganepic.org/lumbering/LumberingBriefHistory.html

logging in winter
Logging in Winter

From Michigan History Magazine at: http://www.michiganhistorymagazine.com/extra/logging/

big wheels invented by silas overpack in 1776
Big Wheels invented by Silas Overpack in 1776

Silas Overpack

From Michigan History Magazine at: http://www.michiganhistorymagazine.com/extra/logging/

slide18
From:Michigan EPIC Center for Michigan History Studies

—http://michiganepic.org/lumbering/LumberingBriefHistory.html

slide20
From:Michigan EPIC Center for Michigan History Studies

—http://michiganepic.org/lumbering/LumberingBriefHistory.html

slide21
Gabriel Horn

From:Michigan EPIC Center for Michigan History Studies

—http://michiganepic.org/lumbering/LumberingBriefHistory.html

slide22
From:Michigan EPIC Center for Michigan History Studies

—http://michiganepic.org/lumbering/LumberingBriefHistory.html

log marks
Log Marks

Log Marks 1842

  • Log Piracy
  • Assist in sorting process

From Michigan History Magazine at: http://www.michiganhistorymagazine.com/extra/logging/

slide24
Boomers

From:Michigan EPIC Center for Michigan History Studies

—http://michiganepic.org/lumbering/LumberingBriefHistory.html

slide25
Log Jam job for the Jam Crackers

From:Michigan EPIC Center for Michigan History Studies

—http://michiganepic.org/lumbering/LumberingBriefHistory.html

log jam on the grand river in 1883
Log Jam on the Grand River in 1883

Jam Crackers would dynamite the log jams to break them up

From Michigan History Magazine at : http://www.michiganhistorymagazine.com/extra/logging/

narrow gage railways
Narrow Gage Railways

Introduced by Winfield Scott Gerrish in 1776

From Michigan History Magazine at: http://www.michiganhistorymagazine.com/extra/logging/

sawmill at menominee 1832
Sawmill at Menominee (1832)

From Michigan History Magazine at: http://www.michiganhistorymagazine.com/extra/logging/

slide30
From:Michigan EPIC Center for Michigan History Studies

—http://michiganepic.org/lumbering/LumberingBriefHistory.html

slide31
From:Michigan EPIC Center for Michigan History Studies

—http://michiganepic.org/lumbering/LumberingBriefHistory.html

slide32
From:Michigan EPIC Center for Michigan History Studies

—http://michiganepic.org/lumbering/LumberingBriefHistory.html

slide33
Michigan 1840p

From:Michigan EPIC Center for Michigan History Studies

http://michiganepic.org/lumbering/LumberingBriefHistory.html

results of logging
Results of Logging
  • Lumber Barons—men who made their fortunes in logging
  • Stumps were cleared and farming began
  • Massive fires in the debris and underbrush in 1871(Manistee/Saginaw 2 million acres), 1881(thumb 280 dead) and 1908 2 million acres
  • Erosion
slide38
From:Michigan EPIC Center for Michigan History Studies

http://michiganepic.org/lumbering/LumberingBriefHistory.html

return of michigan s forests
Return of Michigan’s Forests
  • Conservation Movement Teddy Roosevelt, Gifford Pinchot and John Muir
  • 1895 First State Park (Mackinac Island)
  • 1900 First State Forests (Roscommon & Crawford Counties
  • Great Depression—Land Abandoned—Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC) 1933
slide40
Michigan 50 Camps

Planted 500 million trees

Fought Fires

Built 7,000 miles of road

Improved Streams

Stocked Lakes with 150 million fish

Build Seney Wildlife Refuge

slide41
State Forest System

Four Million Acres

20% of Michigan’s Forests

2nd largest state forest system

National Forests

2.6 Million Acres

Threats

Intensive browsing of deer

Forest ownership/parcelization

michigan s forests today
Michigan’s Forests Today
  • 11.5 Billion Trees, more are added each year, they cover 53% of Michigan
  • Trees are smaller, fewer pine, tamarack and hemlock more aspens, red maple and paper birch.
  • Tallest tree—white pine 201 feet in (Marquette County) and largest tree Black Willow (Grand Traverse County)
michigan s forest industry today
Michigan’s Forest Industry Today
  • Forestry is a 12 Billion $ industry plus 3+ billion $ from forest based recreation
  • Forest industry provides 200,000 jobs and over 1.3 billion board feet of lumber annually
  • Highly mechanized forest harvest and replanting
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