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CLS 1113 Introduction to Clinical Laboratory Practices. Unit 4 Introduction to Immunology. Immunology. Immunology: Study of the molecules , cells , organs , and systems responsible for the recognition and disposal of foreign (nonself) material

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  • Immunology:
    • Study of the molecules, cells, organs, and systems responsible for the recognition and disposal of foreign (nonself) material
    • Study of the MECHANISMS that protect an individual from injury from:
      • Exogenous microorganisms – bacteria, fungi, viruses
      • Exogenous chemicals – pollen, poison ivy, etc.
      • Endogenous cells – malignant or senescent cells
    • IMMUNE RESPONSE: Broad range of defense mechanisms including inflammation, phagocytosis, antibody synthesis, etc.
  • Serology: the study of the non-cellular components of the blood (serum).
    • Antibody production and reactivity
    • Complement
natural immunity
Natural Immunity
  • Innate or Inborn immunity
    • Non specific
    • External Defenses:
      • Skin, acid in sweat, mucus membranes, cilia in respiratory tract, normal flora
    • Internal Defenses:
      • Non-specific cellular responses
        • Cells and soluble factors
acquired immunity
Acquired Immunity


  • Allows the body to Recognize, Remember and Respond to a specific stimulus.
    • Example: Your Hepatitis B shots (You were give three doses of attenuated Hep. B virus; your body recognized it as foreign and produced an anti-hepatitis B antibody.)


  • Antibody mediated immunity received from another source
    • Example: A mothers breast milk has antibody that the baby uses until he/she can produce their own.
    • Example: A gamma (immune) globulin shot provides immunity when someone travels over seas, but their body did nothing to develop the immunity.
cell mediated vs humoral immunity
Cell Mediated vs.Humoral Immunity

Cell Mediated Immunity

  • Form of acquired immunity in which T lymphocytes recognize and react with a stimulus through direct cell-to-cell interaction of lymphokines.

Humoral Immunity

  • Form of acquired immunity in which B Lymphocytes and plasma cells produce specific antibodies that recognize and react to a stimulus.
cellular immunity resistance to disease via cellular elements granulocytic in the blood
Cellular Immunity:Resistance to disease via cellular elements (Granulocytic) in the blood.


  • Neutrophils have primary and secondary granules which contain a wide variety of enzymes.
  • Neutrophils migrate through vessel walls (diapedesis) and into tissues when signaled by chemical messengers (chemotaxins).
cellular immunity
Cellular Immunity


  • Red granules
  • Eosinophils increase in number in an allergic reaction or in response to many parasitic infections.
cellular immunity1
Cellular Immunity


  • Blue, large granules containing heparin and histamine
  • Heparin is an anticoagulant and histamine contracts smooth muscle
cellular immunity2
Cellular Immunity


  • Monocytes only make up 4-10% of the circulating WBC’s.
  • They stay in the blood for a short period of time and then migrate out into the tissues and become known as macrophages.
cellular immunity3
Cellular Immunity


  • Macrophages have specific names depending on their function and particular location.
    • Lung macrophages are “alveolar macrophages”.
    • Liver macrophages are “Kupffer cells”.
    • Brain macrophages are “microglial cells”.
    • Connective tissue macrophages are “histiocytes”.
  • Monocytes/Macrophages are very important.
    • They participate in phagocytosis, anti-tumor activity, chemical secretion, and antigen presentation.
  • Phagocytosis
    • Greek word meaning “cell-eating”The engulfment of cells or foreign matter.
  • Phagocytosis consists of four main steps
    • Physical contact of the cell with the foreign agent
    • Formation of a phagosome
    • Fusion with cellular granules
    • Digestion and release of debris to outside of cell
  • An opsonin (Greek word meaning “prepare for eating”) is a plasma protein that will attach to a foreign substance and prepare it for phagocytosis. Types of opsonins include:
    • C-reactive protein, complement, antibodies
  • Tissue reaction to injury caused by physical or chemical agents including microorganisms.
  • The signs of inflammation include:
    • Redness and Heat
      • Mast cells release histamine causing vasodilation increasing the blood flow to the area
    • Swelling and Pain
      • Increase permeability allows fluids to leak into the tissues
  • Major events associated with inflammation include:
    • Increase blood supply to the affected area
    • Increased capillary permeability
    • Migration of neutrophils to the affected area
    • Migration of macrophages to the affected area