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WORLD WAR II. New Dictatorships.

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New dictatorships
New Dictatorships

  • “The new dictatorships harnessed the masses in an idolatrous worship of the state (or party, or leader) and a never-ending violent struggle against enemies, both within and without. The individual as a rational being possessing certain inalienable, natural rights ceased to exist, becoming instead a mere faceless object at the disposal of the state. Not only was individualism denied, but also the traditional liberal belief in reason, progress, and the basic harmony of human society. Loathing the middle class, the mainstay of classical liberalism, the new dictators promised a classless state (never achieved). Employing a large state police apparatus and a carefully crafted program of systemic terror, the masses were recruited for a permanent revolution.”

    • Richards & Waibel , p. 99, 1999. 20th Century Europe: A Brief History

Failure of versailles
Failure of Versailles

  • Deep resentment in Germany

  • Weimer Republic could not handle the stipulations

  • Easy for dictators to ease power.

Joseph stalin
Joseph Stalin

  • Took control after Lenin died in 1924

  • Wanted the Soviet Union to become the model communist state

    • Stamped out all free enterprise

    • Government owned land and industry

  • Responsible for 8 – 13 million deaths.

  • Totalitarian

Benito mussolini
Benito Mussolini

  • Unemployment, strikes in Italy

  • Played on economic collapse and communism to gain popularity

  • Fascism

  • Militaristic expansion

  • Private property w/strong gov. controls.

  • Italy invaded Ethiopia in 1935

Adolf hitler
Adolf Hitler

  • Failure of the Weimer Republic, German unemployment & depression gave him an opportunity

  • Nazism:

    • Extreme nationalism

    • Racial purification

    • National expansion

Militarism in japan
Militarism in Japan

  • The Great Depression hit Japan hard

    • Military took matters in its own hands

  • 1932: Military dictatorship

    • Group of leaders

  • Wanted an overseas empire = nat. resources

  • Invaded Manchuria

  • Hideki Tojo becomes Prime Minister is ’41.

Civil war in spain
Civil War in Spain

  • 1936, Francisco Franco led Spanish officers against the Spanish Rep.

    • Civil War

  • World alarmed by another by another fascist regime

  • Backed by Hitler and Mussolini

  • Western democracies remained neutral.

U s remains neutral
U.S. Remains Neutral

  • Arguments that U.S. involvement in WWI was caused by greedy bankers and arms dealers

  • Neutrality Acts:

    • Outlawed arms sales or loans to nations at war and or civil war.

Neutrality breaks down
Neutrality Breaks Down

  • FDR found away around the Neutrality Acts

  • Japan never declared war on China when they invaded Manchuria

  • U.S. supplied China w/arms

  • Called on nations to quarantine aggressors

  • Strong criticism

Austria czech fall
Austria & Czech. Fall

  • For Germany to grow = needed land of its neighbors

  • Hitler knew it might provoke war = didn’t care.


  • Majority of population were Germans who favored unification

  • March 12, 1938: German troops marched in unopposed

    • Auschliss = Union

  • World did nothing

The sudetenland
The Sudetenland

  • Hitler = false accusations of Czechs abusing Sudeten Germans

  • France, G.B. = protect Czech.

  • Munich Agreement = Sep. 30, 1938 – France & G.B. gave Hitler the Sudetenland w/o a shot fired.

Soviet union remains neutral
Soviet Union Remains Neutral

  • Poland: neighbor of Soviet Union

    • France, G.B. vowed to protect her

  • Nonaggression Pact w/Hitler and Stalin

    • Divided Poland between the both

The blitz in poland
The “Blitz” in Poland

  • Sept. 1, 1939: Germany invaded Poland

  • Blitzkrieg: Lightning war

    • Bombing raids by air

    • Quick but devastating advances on the ground

  • Sept. 3: France, G.B. declare war on Germany = WWII

The fall of france
The Fall of France

  • German invasion from the north, Italy from the South

  • Little resistance

  • Nazi controlled Northern France, installed puppet gov. in the South

Battle of britain
Battle of Britain

  • Summer – Fall 1940

  • German Luftwaffe relentlessly bombed Britain

  • Royal Air Force (RAF)

    • Used radar to take back the skies

    • Sept. 15, 1940: 185 German planes shot down

Japan s ambitions in the pacific
Japan’s Ambitions in the Pacific

  • French, Dutch, and British colonies unprotected in Asia

    • Japan seized them

  • July 1941: Japanese takeover of Vietnam, Laos, Cambodia

  • U.S. cut off trade

    • No oil

Peace talks
Peace Talks

  • Tojo promised peace

  • Sept. 1941: Japanese planned the attack

  • U.S. broke Japanese codes – learned that Japan was preparing for an attack

  • FDR wanted the Japanese to strike 1st

  • Dec. 6, 1941: Japan rejects all peace proposals.

The attack
The Attack

  • 180 Japanese warplanes; 6 carriers; three waves

  • 21 ships / 8 battleships lost or sunk

    • Nearly the whole Pacific Fleet

Reaction to pearl
Reaction to Pearl

  • FDR did not want a two front war.

  • Dec. 8: Unanimous declaration of war on Japan

  • Dec. 11: Italy & Germany declared war on the U.S.

  • Sen. Burton Wheeler: “The only thing to do now is lick the hell out of them.”

One saving grace
One Saving Grace

  • U.S. aircraft carriers left Pearl days before.

  • Aircraft carriers changed the way the Pacific theatre would be fought.

Battle of the atlantic
Battle of the Atlantic

  • German U-Boats sank any supply ship in the Atlantic

    • 1st seven month of ’42 = 681 ships lost

  • Allied Solution: Convoy system

    • Battleships and airplanes accompanied supply ships


  • S-Grad: major manufacturing and communications center city of So. Russia.

  • Sept. – Oct ’42: Germans surrounded the city

  • Winter helped the Soviets

    • Bring in reinforcements and surround the Germans who were inside the city.

    • ** Order 227 ** “Not One Step Back”

  • German surrender in Jan. ’43 marked the beginning of Germany’s retreat westward.

  • Axis Casualties: 800,000

  • Soviet Casualties: 1.5 Million

  • Length of siege: 6 months

  • **Total U.S. casualties in WWII: 416,800

Vasily zaitsev

  • 242 kills (243 shots) **

North africa
North Africa

  • Allies didn’t think they had the men/resources for a European invasion

  • Operation Torch – Nov. ’42

    • Designed by Ike

  • Industry/resources propelled Allied victory

Italian campaign
Italian Campaign

  • Italy chosen before English Channel invasion

    • Known as the “soft underbelly of Europe.

  • Patton’s Sixth Army

  • Sicily fell to the Allies in 1943

    • Mussolini stripped of power.

D day

  • June 6, 1944

  • Largest land-sea-air operation in history

  • 5 main beaches

    • Gold

    • Sword

    • Juno

    • Omaha **

    • Utah

D day decision day
D-Day (Decision Day)

  • 156,000 men (3 million total)

  • 6,000 landing craft

  • 11,000 planes

  • 800 warships

  • 60 miles of coastline to secure

  • Break down the Atlantic Wall

Success at normandy
Success at Normandy

  • Within one week, beaches were secure

  • Within one month: 1 million Allied troops occupied the beaches

  • Began the process of pushing the Germans back towards Belgium

D day memorial
D-Day Memorial

  • 9378 Americans buried w/Crosses and Stars of David

  • 209,000 total Allied casualties

  • 200,000 estimated Germans

Monteith jimmie w jr

Rank and organization: First Lieutenant, U.S. Army, 16th Infantry, 1st Infantry Division. Place and date: Near Colleville-sur-Mer, France, 6 June 1944. Entered service at: Richmond, Va. Born: 1 July 1917, Low Moor, Va. G.O. No.: 20, 29 March 1945. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity above and beyond the call of duty on 6 June 1944, near Colleville-sur-Mer, France. 1st Lt. Monteith landed with the initial assault waves on the coast of France under heavy enemy fire. Without regard to his own personal safety he continually moved up and down the beach reorganizing men for further assault. He then led the assault over a narrow protective ledge and across the flat, exposed terrain to the comparative safety of a cliff. Retracing his steps across the field to the beach, he moved over to where 2 tanks were buttoned up and blind under violent enemy artillery and machinegun fire. Completely exposed to the intense fire, 1st Lt. Monteith led the tanks on foot through a minefield and into firing positions. Under his direction several enemy positions were destroyed. He then rejoined his company and under his leadership his men captured an advantageous position on the hill. Supervising the defense of his newly won position against repeated vicious counterattacks, he continued to ignore his own personal safety, repeatedly crossing the 200 or 300 yards of open terrain under heavy fire to strengthen links in his defensive chain. When the enemy succeeded in completely surrounding 1st Lt. Monteith and his unit and while leading the fight out of the situation, 1st Lt. Monteith was killed by enemy fire. The courage, gallantry, and intrepid leadership displayed by 1st Lt. Monteith is worthy of emulation.