INTEGUMENTARY SYSTEM. CHAPTER 16: SKIN. FUNCTIONS OF THE SKIN. Protects the body –prevents loss of water, salt, heat & against invasion of pathogens & toxins Lubricates skin surface (with sebum, secreted from sebaceous glands) Maintains temperature
CHAPTER 16: SKIN
You will need to be able to locate and/or identify individual layers of skin
Figure 16-2. (A) Anatomical structure of a nail. (B) Onycholysis. Infection or trauma to the nail may be the cause of the detachment of the nail from its plate. (B from Seidel HM: Mosby's Guide to Physical Examination, 5th ed. St. Louis, Mosby, 2003, p. 214.)
diaphor / o = sweatdiaphor / esis = profuse sweating condition
hidr / o = sweat an / hidr / osis = condition of not sweating
ichthy / o = dry, scalyichthy / osis = dry, scaly skin
myc / o = fungusdermat / o / myc / osis = fungal skin inf
onych / o = nailonych / o / myc / osis =fungus in nail
trich / o = hairtrich / o / myc / osis = fungus in hair
xer / o = dryxer / o / derma = dry skin
ungu / o = nail sub / ungu / al = under the nail
adip / = fatadip / ose = pertaining to fat
albin / o = whitealbin / ism = condition of white (skin)
kerat / o = hard, horny tissue kerat / osis = abnormal condition of ……
xanth / o = yellowxanth / oma = yellow mass (tumor)
melan / o = blackmelan / oma = black tumor
seb / o = oily (sebum)seb/ o / rrhea = oily discharge
Figure 16-4. Bullae (large blisters) in bullous pemphigoid (a chronic skin disorder in older individuals). The pemphigoid (pemphix means bubble) bullae occur as the entire thickness of the epidermis detaches from its foundation. (From Kumar V, Cotran RS, Robbins SL: Basic Pathology, 7th ed. Philadelphia, WB Saunders, 2003, p. 797.)
Figure 16-9. (A) Tinea corporis (ringworm). (B) Tinea unguium. Fungal infection of the nail causes the distal nail plate to turn yellow or white. Hyperkeratotic debris accumulates, causing the nail to separate from the nail bed (onycholysis).
Wart – verruca is medical term for wart
Figure 16-12. Verruca vulgaris. Warts are multiple papules with rough, pebble-like surfaces.
Figure 16-6. (A) Formation of a blackhead (comedo) in a dilated pore filled with sebum, bacteria, and pigment. (B) Acne vulgaris on the face.
Figure 16-8. Psoriasis. Scaly erythematous plaque, with silvery scales on top.
Figure 16-10. Vitiligo on the hand (Latin: vitium meaning a 'blemish'). Epidermal melanocytes are completely lost in depigmented areas through an autoimmune process.
Figure 16-11. (A) Callus on the sole of the foot. (B) Keloid. (A from Mosby's Medical, Nursing, and Allied Health Dictionary, 6th ed., St. Louis, Mosby, 2002, p. 265; B from Ignatavicius DD, Workman ML: Medical-Surgical Nursing: Critical Thinking for Collaborative Care, 4th ed. Philadelphia, WB Saunders, 2002, p. 1544.)
Figure 16-7. Burns. (A) Second-degree injury. Wound sensation is painful and very sensitive to touch and air currents. (B) Third-degree burn showing viable color (deep-red, white, black and brown). The wound itself is insensate (does not respond to pinprick sensation).
Figure 16-15. (A) Actinic (solar) keratosis. (B) Squamous cell carcinoma. Lesions are often nodular and ulcerated.
(A) Basal cell carcinoma.
(B) Kaposi sarcoma.