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Cardiovascular Health. HEALTHY CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM. HEALTHY HEART. HEALTHY ARTERIES. HEALTHY BLOOD PRESSURE. Globally…. 17 million people die of cardiovascular disease each year.

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  • 17 million people die of cardiovascular disease each year.
  • In the United States, coronary heart disease is the single biggest killer and is responsible for 1 in every 5 deaths.
  • In Europe, cardiovascular disease causes 4 million deaths each year.
  • In Asia, the figure is on the rise.
in singapore
In Singapore…..
  • Heart disease is the No.2 killer after cancer.
  • Approximately 2,000 people get heart attacks every year. Of these 50% die because they do not receive medical help fast enough.
  • Death rate due to cardiovascular disease was 7.7% ( 1957 ) to 26.3 % ( 2001 ).
in singapore1
In Singapore…..
  • Death due to ischaemic disease is 100/100,000 population.
  • United States is 125/ 100,000, Australia 97/100,000, Japan 22/100,000 and Hong Kong 40/100,000.
according to the state of health 2001 report
According to the ‘State of Health 2001’ report….
  • 27% of Singaporeans are hypertensive.
  • 58% are physically inactive during their leisure time.
  • 24% are overweight with 6 % being obese.
2002 heart and stoke statistical update american heart association

Surveys show that most women are far more afraid of breast cancer than of cardiovascular disease (even though 1 in 30 women’s deaths is from breast cancer while 1 in 2.4 is from CVD

2002 Heart and Stoke Statistical Update, American Heart Association

the pathobiological determinants of atherosclerosis in youth pday
Study Group: ~ 3000 persons dying of external causes

Atherosclerosis begins in childhood

By age 15, all subjects had atherosclerosis

McGill HC Jr, McMahan CA, Herderick EE, Zieske AW, Malcom GT, Tracy RE, Strong JP; Circulation 2002 Jun 11;105(23):2712-8. Comment in: Circulation. 2002 Jun 11;105(23):2696-8.

Zieske AW, Malcom GT, Strong JP. Natural history and risk factors of atherosclerosis in children and youth: the PDAY study. Pediatr Pathol Mol Med 2002 Mar-Apr;21(2):213-37

Strong JP, Zieske AW, Malcom GT. Lipoproteins and atherosclerosis in children: an early marriage? Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis 2001 Oct;11 Suppl 5:16-22

The Pathobiological Determinants of Atherosclerosis in Youth (PDAY)

Estimated Direct and Indirect Costs of Cardiovascular Diseases and Stroke United States: 2002

2002 Heart and Stroke Statistical Update, American Heart Association


As recently as five years ago, most physicians would have confidently described atherosclerosis as a straight plumbing problem.

Scientific American May, 2002 pg. 48

atherosclerosis the new view
The long held conception of how the disease develops turns out to be wrong.

Not a straight plumbing problem!

Inflammation fuels the development and progression of Atherosclerosis

Peter Libby Scientific American May 2002, p 47-55.

Atherosclerosis:The NEW VIEW

Habitual response to events as if they were life-threatening generates a repetitive stress/inflammatory response that may result in atherosclerosis

Black PH, Garbutt LD. Stress, inflamation and cardiovascular disease. J Psychosomatic Res 2002, 52, 1-23.

how many people
How many people……
  • Hypertension ?
  • High cholesterol ?
  • Diabetes ?
cvd how does it happen
Infections can inflame arteries and lead to heart attacks

Six microbes associated with CVD risk


Hepatitis A

Herpes Simplex viruses 1 and 2

Chlamydia pneumoniae

H. Pylori

American College of Cardiology March 2000

CVD: How does it happen?
targeted transfer factor

Targeted Transfer Factor

  • Managed environment
  • Unfertilized eggs
egg allergies
Prevalence of probable food allergy

0.61% for peanut.

0.53% shrimp

<0.27% for wheat

0.09% for cow's milk and egg

Main egg allergens are found in whites

Woods RK, Thien F, Raven J, Walters EH, Abramson M. Prevalence of food allergies in young adults and their relationship to asthma, nasal allergies, and eczema. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol 2002 Feb;88(2):183-9

Anet J, Back JF, Baker RS, Barnett D, Burley RW, Howden ME. Allergens in the white and yolk of hen's egg. A study of IgE binding by egg proteins. Int Arch Allergy Appl Immunol 1985;77(3):364-71

Egg Allergies

“Magnesium deficiency has been shown to correlate with a number of chronic cardiovascular diseases, including hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and hyperlipidemia.”

Fox C, Ramsoomair D, and Carter C. South Med J 2001; 94(12) :1195-20. Abstract.


“The American diet is low in magnesium, and with modern water systems, very little is ingested in the drinking water.”

Innerarity S. Crit Care Nurs 2000; 23(2): 1-19. Abstract.

Allows blood vessels to relax not spasm

Required for metabolic efficiency

Deficiency leads to hypertrophy or enlargement of the heart

Magnesium is a NATURAL calcium channel blocker (1)

Stigson, L. and I. Kjellmer (1997). "Serum levels of MAGNESIUM at birth related to complications of immaturity." Acta Paediatr 86(9): 991-4.

Med Text refs

dietary copper deficiency
high blood pressure

enhancement of inflammation


reduced blood clotting


Saari JT and Schuschke DA. Biofactors 1999; 10(4): 359-75.

Dietary Copper Deficiency

Zinc requirements

of the vascular


are increased

during inflammatory conditions

such as atherosclerosis.

Hennig B, Meerarani P, et al. Br J Nutr 1999; 81(2): 85-6.

Both men and women who took zinc supplements had higher HDL cholesterol levels than non supplementing individuals.

Neggers YH, Bindon JR, et al. Biol trace Elem Res 2001; 79(1): 1-13.

  • Selenium deficiency leads to an increased frequency of cardiovascular diseases.
  • “Selenium is well recognized as a preventive factor for cancer and cardiovascular diseases.”

Racek J, Holecek V, et al. Vnitr Lek 1999; 45(6): 373-8.

Miyazaki Y, Koyama H, et al. Nippon Koshu Eisei Zasshi 2001; 48(4): 243-57.

  • Elevated levels of homocysteine promote the development of atherosclerosis.
  • Approximately 10% of coronary artery disease cases are attributable to hyperhomocysteinemia.”
  • Folic Acid  -25% homocysteine
  • Vit B12  -7% homocysteine

Zacarias-Castillo R, Hernandez-Rebollar AE, et al. Gac Med Mex 2001; 137(4): 335-45.

Ubbink JB, Becker PJ, Vermaak WJ. Nutr Rev 1996; 54(7): 213-6. Clarke R, Armitage J. Semin Thromb Hemost 2000; 26(3):341-8. Auer J, Berent R, et al. Wien Med Wochenschr 2001;151(1-2):25-8.

vitamin c
Antioxidants, such as vitamin C, may slow atherogenesis.

An increased intake of vitamin C is associated with a reduced risk of chronic diseases such as cancer, cardiovascular disease, and cataracts

Price KD, Price CS, et al. Atherosclerosis 2001; 158(1):1-12.

Carr AC and Frei B. Am J Clin Nutr 1999; 69(6): 1086-107.

Vitamin C
vitamin e supplement benefits
Vitamin E Supplement Benefits
  • Decreased cardiac events:
    • U.S. Nurses’ Health Study

-34% risk reduction

    • U.S. Health Professionals’ Study

- 39% risk reduction

    • Iowa Women’s Health Study

- 47% mortality reduction

    • Cambridge Heart Antioxidant Study

- 47% infarct reduction

  • Emmert DH, Kirchner JT. Arch Fam Med 1999; 8(6): 537-42. Abstract.
lysine and herpes
“Herpes group viruses, especially cytomegalovirus and herpes simplex virus type 1, have been associated with both atherosclerosis and restenosis.” (1)

L-Lysine monohydrochloride is used as a suppressant of recurrent herpes simplex infections. (2)

(1) Leinonen M, Saikku P. Scand Cardiovasc J 2000; 34(1): 12-20.

(2) Flodin, NW. J Am Coll Nutr 1997; 16(1): 7-21.

Lysine and Herpes
arginine no
Nitric oxide is a relaxing factor

L-Arginine is the precursor for nitric oxide (NO).

Oral L-Arginine supplementation can improve symptoms of cardiovascular disease.

(Note: Magnesium is also critical.)

Wu G, Meininger CJ. J Nutr 2000; 130(11): 2626-9.

Boger RH, Bode-Boger SM. Annu Rev Pharmacol Toxicol 2001;41:79-99.

Arginine & NO

Promote nitric oxide production,

Inhibit platelet aggregation,

Increase high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol,

Cardioprotective agent.

Bhat KPL, Kosmeder JW, 2nd. Antioxid Redox Signal 2001; 2(6): 1041-64.

coenzyme q10
Useful in congestive heart failure, angina pectoris, cardiomyopathy, coronary artery disease and in the preservation of myocardium.

Coenzyme Q10 is normally found in LDL cholesterol and it inhibits its oxidation.

Cardiac levels of Coenzyme Q10 were decreased in heart disease.

Singh RB, Niaz MA, et al. J Assoc Physicians India 1998; 46(3): 299-306.

Kucharska J, Gvozdjakova A, et al. Bratisl Lek Listy 1996; 97(6): 351-4.

Coenzyme Q10
red yeast rice

total cholesterol,

LDL cholesterol, and

total triacylglycerol concentrations

“Provides a new, novel, food-based approach to lowering cholesterol in the general population.”

Heber D, Yip I, et al. Am J Clin Nutr 1999; 69(2): 231-6.

Red Yeast Rice
cardio herbs
Cardio Herbs
  • Hawthorne
    • Salt Balance, Vessel Integrity
  • Ginkgo Biloba
    • Antioxidant, stabilizer
  • Garlic
    • Antimicrobial, Antioxidant
summary of the problem
SUMMARY of the Problem
  • CVD is the #1 Killer
  • CVD Starts Early
  • CVD is NOT a Simple Plumbing Problem
  • The Immune System is Critically Involved in CVD
  • Infection may Initiate CVD
  • Metabolic Toxins and Chronic Stress Can Trigger Chronic Inflammation
summary of a solution
Summary of a Solution
  • Control Infection
  • Control Inflammation
  • Help the Blood Vessels Relax
  • Protect the Heart and Arteries from Toxin and Oxidative Damage
  • Increase the Pumping Efficiency of the Heart
summary of supplements
Summary of Supplements
  • Tune the Immune System
    • Targeted TF, Zn, Lysine
  • Help relax the Blood Vessels
    • Arginine, Mg, Ginko, Hawthorne, Butcher’s Broom
  • Help support the Pumping Efficiency of the Heart
    • Mg, CoQ10
summary of supplements1
Summary of Supplements
  • Help block Oxidative Damage
    • Se, Cu/Zn;
    • Beta carotene, Vit C, Vit E, Resveratrol,
  • Help improve Toxin Clearance
    • Folic Acid, Vit B6 and Vit B12
  • Help maintain Cholesterol Balance
    • Red Rice Yeast, Garlic