Early African • General Geography • Plateau: Africa shaped like an upside down bowl • Rivers: Nile, Congo, Niger all blocked by rapids and hard to travel upstream (isolation and lack of trade) • Deserts • Sahara Desert: Covers one-fourth of Africa (North) • Kalahari and Namib Deserts (South) • Savannas: Dry grasslands south of the Sahara desert and north of Kalahari and Namib Deserts • Tropical Rainforest: Center of Africa (equator) • Mountains: Mount Kilimanjaro and Mount Kenya
Early Africa • Language • Bantu: Early African Language….appeared to have spread over a lot of Sub Saharan Africa • Trade • Early peoples appear to have had some interactions with Asia • Society • Matrilineal: Ancestors and property traced back through their mothers instead of fathers • Religion • Similar to other areas…gods and spirits based on nature
Ancient Egypt • Egyptian Geography • Nile River: Where the first Civilizations began..predictable flooding was a positive for development of Egypt • Sahara Desert: Made invasion impossible • Egyptian Development • Hieroglyphics: Writing • Papyrus: Plant that was made into early paper
Ancient Egypt • Leaders/Rulers • Pharaoh: Absolute power…both religious and political • Kingdoms • Old (2680 BC-2180 BC): Built Pyramids/Sphinx • Middle (2050-1780 BC): Invaded by foreigners • New (1570 BC-1080 BC): Strongest Empire • Famous Pharaohs • Hatshepsut: 1st Female Pharaoh • Thutmose III: King Tut…one of few tombs found intact • Ramses II: Last great Pharaoh..eventually Egyptians lost their freedoms when invaded by Persians in 300 BC
Ancient Egypt • Religion • Gods based of nature • Mummification: Process to prepare the body for life after death. Tomb of Pharaohs would be filled with valuables to take with them to afterlife • Trade • Caravans: groups of people traveling together and trading together (safety)
East Africa Trade • Trade • There were no real large kingdoms in the lands located along the Indian Ocean. • More small villages that were centered on trade. • Traded gold, ivory, hides and fellow African slaves. • A lot of interactions with Muslims from Arabia and Persia • Swahili • African culture that developed in Eastern Africa • Language that combine Bantu with Persian and Arabic • Became popular up and down the east coast of Africa • Big on trade. Tippu Tip-famous trader and lead Europeans into Africa
West Africa • Trade • Salt for gold trade was important along South Sahara • Empires began to grow around this area • Ghana • Earliest empire of West Africa (300 AD) • Tunka Manin: Ghanaian ruler at the peak of power (1067 AD). • Huge Army: 200,000 warriors, bows/arrows/spears • Destroyed when the Berbers invaded across the area in 1100 AD. • Berbers carried Islam across North Africa
West Africa • Mali • Neighbors of Ghana; gained control of area in 1235 AD • Mansa Musa: Leader of Mali during its peak of power • Timbuktu: Became the leading city of Mali; educational and trade center. • Songhai • Sonni Ali captured Timbuktu after Musa’s death, created a new empire called the Songhai. • Gao and Timbuktu became main trading centers for people from Europe, India, and China. • Eventually defeated by an army from Morocco that had a new weapon…guns.
European Involvement • Slave Trade • Portugal began with a positive relationship with African tribes…then they became greedy and wanted gold and slaves. • Dutch, English and French would all get involved by the 1600s. • Middle Passage: Trip the slaves made from Africa to America’s…awful. Part of Triangular Trade. Slaves would be sold in return for “New World” goods headed to Europe and Africa. • Over 10 million slaves survived the journey to the Americas. • West Africa Slave Trade • Strong states began to emerge in West Africa as partners in the slave trade. • Slavery of other people was a popular practice in Africa (although freedom was often times granted and not considered property) • Problem: Over time, the loss of so many people had awful effects on the development of the area.
1880-1914 New Imperialism • New Imperialism: competition among European nations to grow their empire around the world as much as possible. • This led to conflict among the European nations as well as conflict with the natives. • The Scramble for Africa • Colonization of nearly all of Africa by the European nations • Before 1880 only 10% of Africa was controlled by European powers. Mainly along the coast of W. Africa for the slave trade. • By 1900 only Ethiopia and Liberia remained free from European control
How and why did it happen? 1) Attraction of Imperialism: Glory of the Conquest 2) “White Man’s Burden” to “rescue” the rest of the world from themselves and “civilize” the native people of Africa and Asia. • Leopold and Belgians • Leopold II becomes King of Belgium and begins Imperialist rant, pushing for glories and exploration. • He sent H.M. Stanley up the Congo River to establish trading posts and began colonization and competition for Africa
1884-1885 Berlin Conference • The Berlin Conference (1885) was a series of meetings between the major powers of Europe. They laid down the rules for dividing up Africa. • They established the principle of “effective occupation” to claim territory. • They agree to recognized any areas that are already developed by other European nations. Then the powers rushed to establish the areas unoccupied by other European powers.
Which European countries were fighting for a position in Africa? • Is the cartoon accurate? Does it really show what was going on? • How did the Berlin Conference lead to the situation shown?
After the Berlin Conference • France conquers much of Western Africa (some of Central) • British greatly expand their holding by pushing into the south interior and continued interest in Egypt. • Germany enters the fray with colonies in West Africa, SW Africa, and German E. Africa • Italy gets into the act in Libya and Somalia • Spain establishes colonies in coastal W. Africa • United States Involvement • Defended Liberia; a county for freed American slaves to return to. • Only independent country in the area.
1800s: Effects of European Imperialism • Bad Effects • Europeans controlled all aspects of government • They did not create borders that aligned with the tribes of the area. Often put rival tribes within the same borders which led to conflict. • Paternalism: Belief that African’s were not able to effectively rule themselves. • Alliances: Some Africans tried to form alliances with European countries…usually this worked out bad for the African countries (Ethiopia and Italy) • Most Africans never accepted European rule and culture. Europeans wanted them to assimilate. Did not happen. • Good Effects • New things: crops, ways of farming, roads, and railroads all helped improve communications.
Independence Time • Post WWI • After WWI a lot of British colonies began demanding self-rule. • Issues • Africans had helped GB/France during WWI…now they wanted freedom. • Soldiers returning from war had new ideas on nationalism, independence, racism, etc
More Calls for Independence • African Organizations • By the 1930’s most Africans were calling for independence rather than reform. • This made European countries and tribal chiefs upset • Leaders • Nnamdi Azikiwe (Nigeria), Jomo Kenyatta (Kenya) and Leopold Senghor (Senegal). • This leaders followed the non-violent teachings of Gandhi to gain support for independence
African during WWII • Italy/Ethiopia • Ethiopia: one of the few independent countries in Africa during the 1930s. • Mussolini: Leader of Italy, invaded a defeated Ethiopia in 1935. • Ethiopia had asked for help, no one helped them. Fought them off and remained independent. • Fighting in Africa • Germany, led by commander Erwin Rommel had taken control of Libya. Tank warfare • Eventually Axis forces were defeated by Americans/British forces in 1942…forced to retreat back to Tunisia. • Eventually Dwight Eisenhower (SA) and Bernard Montgomery (GB) were able to trap Rommel’s troops in Tunisia. • Allies gained complete control of Northern Africa and Suez Canal
Back to more independence • Independence Movement • Grew tremendously after WWII. Most Africans no longer accepted being under the control of European Countries • Pan Africanism: Cultural unity of people of African heritage in their struggle for freedom. • Europe’s Response • Not all European countries were so eager to give up their lands in Africa
British Colonies in Africa • Ghana • Kwame Nkrumah (en-KROO-muh) was the leader and began to organize political change. • Boycotts turned into riots…eventually stopped by GB • Convention Peoples Party (CPP): Founded by Nkrumah and was determined to get immediate self-government • In 1957, the Gold Coast was given its freedom from Great Britain….renamed Ghana to celebrate African heritage • Kenya • Countries with more white settlers (like Kenya) were more against giving African’s any sort of self rule. • Arguments over who would control the wealthy land that coffee was grown on (whites had control of it). • This led to a bloody conflict between the Kikuyu (Kenya’s largest ethnic group) and the whites/Africans that were loyal to GB. • Jomo Kenyatta: Leader of the Mau Mau (secret Kikuyu group) was imprisoned..eventually freed in 1961. • Kenyatta easily won election in 1964…Kenya was free
Post Independence Africa • Ghana and Political Violence • Kwame Nkrumah: Leader of Ghana…took control of cocoa (very profitable, made a ton of money and power) • Turned Ghana into a one-party state and had absolute power. • Cocoa prices fell, Ghana lost money and Nkrumah turned violent towards his own people. • Military Coup (takeover) forced Nkrumah out of power • Jerry Rawlings: brought back civilian rule to Ghana • Transition was not an easy thing for people of Ghana but today Ghana is a stable democracy in West Africa
British Colonies in Africa • Central Africa • South Rhodesia: Large white population; granted self government during the 1920’s. • North Rhodesia and Nyasaland: Mostly black, governed by GB • GB attempted to unite all 3 of them…did not work. • Change • North Rhodesia became Zambia • Nyasaland became Malawi • South Rhodesia • South Rhodesia (mostly white) would not give up its control…led to civil unrest and fighting. • In 1980 Robert Mugabe won an election and made turned South Rhodesia into Zimbabwe