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SIM : Fluorescence Yield From Lab to EAS in atmosphere. Photon yield to be used in SIM-WG ? Which set of data ? Which set of parameters? some aspects. Fluorescence in N 2. Excited bands: B 2 S u (N2+) : direct Under particle impact C 3 P u (N2) : 2-step Electron exchange

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sim fluorescence yield from lab to eas in atmosphere
SIM : Fluorescence YieldFrom Lab to EAS in atmosphere
  • Photon yield to be used in SIM-WG ?
  • Which set of data ?
  • Which set of parameters?
  • some aspects

Didier Lebrun

Huntsville, May 2003

fluorescence in n 2
Fluorescencein N2

Excited bands:

B2Su (N2+) : direct

Under particle impact

C3Pu (N2) : 2-step

Electron exchange

Under very low impact energy

(secondary electrons)

Didier Lebrun

Huntsville, May 2003

fluorescence parameters their influence on yield
Fluorescence parameters & their influence on yield
  • Fluorescence efficiencies in N2 in (N2 & Air)
    • Transition band
    • Impact energy
    • Mixed gas and quenching (O2, Water…)
    • Collision quenching , Internal quenching?
    • Other scintillation centers in Air ?
  • EAS parameters
      • Energy-loss distribution of e-m component & Age effect
  • Detection optical bandwidth

Photon Yield / electron /meter in Air

Didier Lebrun

Huntsville, May 2003

yield
Yield

Didier Lebrun

Huntsville, May 2003

water vapor quenching of n 2 2p fluorescence
Water Vapor Quenching ofN2 (2P) fluorescence

As for O2 quenching is due to high electron attachment cross-section

no quenching for 1N (391nm)

Standard humidity profile

Didier Lebrun

Huntsville, May 2003

fluorescence data
Fluorescence Data
  • Data used so far
        • Bunner thesis (compilation)
        • Davidson & O’Neil (N2,Air, Monochromator,)
        • Kakimoto (Energy dependence) . Ueno (1.4 MeV)
      • Nagano (0.85 MeV,Coll.P) NEW : FY Increases
  • Other Data
      • LAX (22 keV X, BG1)
      • Data from Laser Physics (N2) , Atmospheric Physics (aurora), Plasma physics (discharge), Particle physics detectors ( electron drift in gas)

Didier Lebrun

Huntsville, May 2003

starting with 2p transition at very low pressure
Starting with2P transition at very low pressure

Relative transition strength at s max:

Exp : Fons et al Phys.ReV A 53(1996)2289

Th : Franck-Condon transition coefficients

smax(0,0)=1.07 10-17 cm2

At P = 0.5 mTorr

Normalization : only smax(0,0) (337.1) @ electron impact energy (15 eV)

Didier Lebrun

Huntsville, May 2003

collision quenching
Collision quenching
  • Pressure (T) dependence measurements.
    • Wide band filter (LaX)
    • Narrow band filter (Nagano)
    • Monochromator (future)
  • Need good wavelength resolution

(~1-2nm) but for head of bands only.

LaXdata

Calculation with ‘old’ set of parameter

Didier Lebrun

Huntsville, May 2003

parameters from eas
Parameters from EAS
  • Electron impact energy
  • Distribution of energy loss frome.m component in EAS
    • Preliminary study with Corsika tells us that the mean energy loss per particle corresponds to an electron impact energy of 32 MeV.
    • To be confirmed (depends on ‘thinning’); but it is< critical energy
    • shower age dependence

Didier Lebrun

Huntsville, May 2003

slide10
Didier Lebrun

Huntsville, May 2003

fluorescence mechanisms and their influence on extrapolation
Fluorescence mechanisms&and their influence on extrapolation
  • One step and two-step processes
      • 1N and 2P behave very differently
      • Secondary electron distribution
    • 2P upper level excitation only under electron impact ?
        • Excitations from cascading ?
    • Excitation transfer ?
        • Argon
    • Special conditions in EAS ?
        • screening
    • 2P1P cascade
        • Informations from EAS ‘red’ fluorescence ?

Didier Lebrun

Huntsville, May 2003