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The Reproductive System. By: Joseph Kavgaci, Layla Colombo, Josh Lopez . Male Reproductive System. to produce , maintain , and transport semen (protective fluid) and sperm (reproductive cells). discharge sperm within the female reproductive tract during sex.

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the reproductive system

The Reproductive System

By: Joseph Kavgaci, Layla Colombo, Josh Lopez

male reproductive system
Male Reproductive System
  • to produce, maintain, and transport semen(protective fluid) and sperm(reproductive cells).
  • discharge sperm within the female reproductive tract during sex.
  • produce and secrete male sex hormones responsible for maintaining the male reproductivesystem.
  • made up of 12 parts: seminal vesicles, prostate gland, rectum, cowper’s gland, anus, vas deferens, bladder, penis, urethra, epididymis, testes, and the scrotum.
Seminal Vesicles: produce fructose that provide sperm with energy and ability to move

Prostate Gland: contributes fluid to ejaculate; help nourish sperm

Cowper’s Gland: produce a clear, slippery fluid that empties directly into the urethra; lubricates urethra and neutralizes any acidity present

Vas Deferens: long, muscular tube that travels from the epididymis to the bladder; transports sperm to urethra in preparation for ejaculation; vasectomy can be performed to prevent sperm from releasing during ejaculation

Bladder: where urine is collected for removal/excretion

Penis: male organ for intercourse; the opening in it is the urethra; when erect the flow of urine is blocked

Urethra: transports semen and urine

Epididymis: transport and store sperm cells; bring sperm to maturity; contractions during arousal force sperm into vas deferens

Testicles(testes): make testosterone and generate sperm; produce sperm cells through spermatogenesis

Scrotum: responsible for containing testicles as well as many nerves and blood vessels; also a climate control system for testes


- production or development of mature spermatozoa (male sex cells that fertilize the ovum)

sperm release pathway
Sperm Release Pathway

fertilization process
Fertilization Process

- Sperm compete for entrance to egg

- with sperm penetration, egg changes characteristics

- signal causes sacs for sperm’s contents to be dumped

fertilization process cont
Fertilization Process (cont.)

- contents swell and push other sperms away through cortical reaction(process that ensures only one sperm fertilizes the egg)

- once egg is fertilized, it becomes a zygote and continues to develop into a baby(eventually)

diseases disorders of the male reproductive system
Diseases/Disorders of the Male Reproductive System
  • Infertility
  • Testicular Cancer
  • Prostate Cancer
  • Problems with sperm production, ejaculation/erection, or the reproductive tract ducts
  • Problems with sperm production is the most common
infertility cont
Infertility (cont.)

Causes of sperm problems:

  • Increased Temperature
  • Hormonal Disorders
  • Genetic Disorders
  • Drugs

Sperm is vital in the reproductive system and if it is abnormally shaped,or if there are toofew, and if the passage out of the body is blocked then there will be complications in trying to reproduce.

infertility cont1
Infertility (cont.)

Erection problems are most common in adult men, and usually all men have trouble getting or keeping an erection at any point in their lives.

Causes of erection problems:

  • Diabetes
  • Stress
  • Drugs
  • High Blood Pressure
infertility cont2
Infertility (cont.)

Retrograde Ejaculation occurs in less than 1% of men and with this disorder, it is difficult for a couple to conceive. The sperm in men who have this condition, is diverted during ejaculation to their bladder.

Causes of Retrograde Ejaculation:

  • Diabetes, Prostate, Bladder Surgery
  • Taking Medications
testicular cancer
Testicular Cancer

It is one of the most common cancers found in males.

Testicular Cancer occurs when abnormal cells grow out of control in the testes. This cancer is curable but only if it is found in its early stages of development.

formation of testicular cancer
Formation of Testicular Cancer

There are two different types of testicular cancer cells called seminomas and nonseminomas. They form from normal healthy cells that make sperm.

  • Seminomas - Grow and spread slowly.
  • NonSeminomas - Grow and spread faster than seminomas.
symptoms of testicular cancer
Symptoms of Testicular Cancer

Symptoms of Testicular Cancer can include:

  • A lump that can be found in the scrotum.
  • Swelling of the scrotum.
  • Pressure in the groin.

Most men can detect testicular cancer themselves, or by tests done by doctors.

prostate cancer
Prostate Cancer

Prostate cancer develops slowly but it is easily treatable if caught early on. It is developed in the prostate, which is where semen is produced. The cells that develop in the prostate due to the cancer are abnormal and the healthy cells die. The abnormal cells multiply and reproduce to form a tumor.

symptoms of prostate cancer
Symptoms of Prostate Cancer

Symptoms of Prostate Cancer can include:

  • Difficulty starting/stopping urination
  • Frequent urination
  • Pain during urination/ejaculation

Older males are at a higher risk and should go for annual screenings when they are 50 years old.

different stages of prostate cancer
Different Stages of Prostate Cancer

Stage 1 : Prostate cancer is found in the prostate only and can only be detected with a digital rectal exam(DRE).

Stage 2 : The tumor formed from the cancer has enlarged, but not exceeding the prostate.

Stage 3 : The cancer has exceeded the prostate and has affecting nearby tissue.

Stage 4 : The cancer has spread to other areas of the body. (ex. bones, lymph nodes, liver, or lungs)

fertilization video
Fertilization Video

Main Function of the Female Reproductive System

Maintaining female sex cells, and providing a favorable environment for the offspring by transporting oocytes to the site of fertilization are the main responsibilities of the female reproductive system.


The two ovaries are the most important aspect of the female reproductive


Ovaries are primary estrogen buckets

Once the ovaries, and the other reproductive organs, mature there comes the first reproductive cycle of a female’s life - also known as menarche.

Let’s Talk Estrogen

Estrogens make sure that the accessory organs do not get too big or too small (for instance: vagina, uterus, uterine tubes, and ovaries. It also maintains and continues to develop secondary sex characteristics during the female reproductive cycle . In a female that is not pregnant the ovaries are also big holders of progesterone – promotes change in the mammary glands, and uterus during the a female's reproductive system

female reproductive organ
Female Reproductive Organ
  • Endometrium – inner lining layer of the Uterus made up of mucus, and is covered with columnar epithelium and tubular glands
  • Fimbrae – irregularly branched extensions of the infundibulum margin
  • Fundus of Uterus – large upper end of the Uterus
  • Myometrium – very thick, muscular layer of Uterus wall made up of smooth muscle fibers arranged in longitudinal, circular, and spiral patterns that is interlaced with connective tissue
  • Fallopian tubes – a pair of muscular tubes that extend from the left and right upper corners of the Uterus
Uterus – pear-shaped, hollow, muscular organ above the urinary bladder
  • Vagina – muscular and elastic tube that connects the cervix of the Uterus to the exterior portion of the body
  • Vulva – collective name for all the external female genitalia
  • Within the Vulva there is the pubic bone – provides cushioning to the Vulva, labia majora – bottom portion of the mons pubis, labia minora – folds of skin that surround the vaginal and urethral openings, and clitoris – contains nerve endings, that sense sexual pleasure
  • Ovaries - a pair of small almond-shaped glands
Breasts – specialized female organs that contain mammary glands, milk ducts, and adipose tissue
  • Nipple – when stimulated releases milk
  • Mammary Glands – glands that produce milk for infants
  • Milk Ducts - a tube, in the breast, that secretes milk
diagrams of the frs
Diagrams of the FRS

Inside Genitalia

Outside Genitalia


What Baby Looks Like

diseases disorders of the female reproductive system
Diseases/Disorders of the Female Reproductive System
  • Infertility
  • Cervical Cancer
  • Vaginal Cancer
  • Problems with hormones
  • Damage to the fallopian tubes
  • Problems with the cervix
  • Problems with the Uterus
infertility cont3
Infertility (cont.)

Problems with hormones can cause women to have them not working properly in the time when the egg is released from the ovary and the endometrium is thickened.

infertility cont4
Infertility (cont.)

If the fallopian tubes of the female reproductive system are damaged, then the sperm and the egg may never come into contact with each other which would prevent fertilization.

infertility cont5
Infertility (cont.)

Causes of Cervical Problems:

  • Excess of mucus in the cervical canal
  • Surgery done in the cervical area

If a woman has a cervical problem then the sperm may not be able to pass through the cervical canal.

infertility cont6
Infertility (cont.)

The uterus may also be damaged or have an abnormal anatomical structure. There may be polyps or fibroids on the uterus as well.

cervical cancer
Cervical Cancer

Cervical cancer forms in the cervix when the cells of the cervix become abnormal. Human Papillomavirus can cause cervical cancer, most women’s bodies prevent that from happening, but in some women the virus can survive for years causing some cells of the cervix to become cancer cells.

symptoms of cervical cancer
Symptoms of Cervical Cancer

Symptoms of Cervical Cancer can include:

  • Vaginal bleeding after intercourse.
  • Watery/bloody vaginal discharge.
  • Pelvic pain.

There may be no symptoms in the early stages.

vaginal cancer
Vaginal Cancer

Vaginal Cancer most commonly occurs on the cells lining the vagina. This cancer is rare however, and the most common way for it to form is by the spreading of cancer from another area of the body.

symptoms of vaginal cancer
Symptoms of Vaginal Cancer

Symptoms of Vaginal Cancer can include:

  • Bleeding after intercourse.
  • Lumps in the Vagina.
  • Painful urination.
  • Constipation.
  • Pelvic Pain.
  • Watery discharge.
sites used
Sites Used

Sites Used: