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Leaders versus Managers. MANAGERS Do things right Status quo Short-term Means Builders Problem solving. LEADERS Do the right thing Change Long-term Ends Architects Inspiring & motivating. 1.1. Adapted from Exhibit 14.1. Leaders versus Managers.

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leaders versus managers
Leaders versus Managers

MANAGERS

Do things right

Status quo

Short-term

Means

Builders

Problem solving

LEADERS

Do the right thing

Change

Long-term

Ends

Architects

Inspiring & motivating

1.1

Adapted from Exhibit 14.1

leaders versus managers1
Leaders versus Managers

American organizations (and probably those in much of the rest of the industrialized world) are under led and over managed. They do not pay enoughattention to doing the right thing, while theypay too much attention to doing things right.

--Warren Bennis

1.1

doing the right thing

The Three M’s: Mission, Mentor, and Mirror

  • Business leaders can develop personal ethics by focusing on their mission, a mentor, and the mirror
  • Develop a personal mission statement.
  • Take care in choosing a mentor.
  • Stand in front of the mirror to assess yourethical performance as a business leader.

DOING THE RIGHT THING

Doing the Right Thing

1.1

substitutes for leadership
Substitutes for Leadership
  • Leadership substitutes
    • subordinate, task, or organizational characteristics that make leaders redundant or unnecessary
  • Leadership neutralizers
    • subordinate, task, or organizational characteristics that interfere with a leader’s actions
  • Leaders don’t always matter
    • Poor leadership is not the cause of every organizational crisis

1.2

who leaders are and what leaders do
Who Leaders Are and What Leaders Do

Leadership

Traits

Leadership

Behavior

2

leadership traits

HonestyandIntegrity

Desireto Lead

Drive

Self-Confidence

LeadershipTraits

Knowledgeof theBusiness

EmotionalStability

CognitiveAbility

Leadership Traits

2.1

Adapted from Exhibit 14.3

leadership behaviors

Initiating Structure

The degree to which a leader structures the roles of followers by setting goals, giving directions, setting deadlines, and assigning tasks.

Consideration

The extent to which a leader is friendly, approachable, and supportive and shows concern for employees.

Leadership Behaviors

2.2

blake moulton leadership grid

9

1,9

Country Club Management

Team Management

9,9

8

7

6

5

4

3

2

Impoverished Management

Authority-Compliance

1,1

9,1

1

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

Blake/Moulton Leadership Grid

High

Middle of theRoad5,5

5,5

Concern for People

Low

Concern for Production

Low

High

2.2

Adapted from Exhibit 14.4

putting leaders in the right situation fiedler s contingency theory

Situational

Favorableness

GroupPerformance

LeadershipStyle

=

Putting Leaders in the Right Situation:Fiedler’s Contingency Theory

3

putting leaders in the right situation fiedler s contingency theory1
Putting Leaders in the Right Situation:Fiedler’s Contingency Theory

Least Preferred Coworker

Situational Favorableness

Matching Leadership Stylesto Situations

3

leadership style least preferred coworker
Leadership Style:Least Preferred Coworker
  • Leadership style is the way a leader generally behaves toward followers
    • seen as stable and difficult to change
  • Style is measured by the Least Preferred Co-worker scale (LPC)
    • relationship-oriented
    • task-oriented

3.1

situational favorableness

Situational Favorableness

  • The degree to which a particular situation either permits or denies a leader the chance to influence the behavior of group members.

Three factors:

    • Leader-member relations
    • Task structure
    • Position power
Situational Favorableness

3.2

path goal theory

Path-Goal Theory

A leadership theory that states that leaders can increase subordinate satisfaction and performance by clarifying and clearing the paths to goals and by increasing the number and kinds of rewards available for goal attainment.

Path-Goal Theory

4

basic assumptions of path goal theory

Clarify paths to goals

Clear paths to goals by solving problems and removing roadblocks

Increase the number and kinds of rewardsavailable for goal attainment

Do things that satisfy followers today or will lead to future rewards or satisfaction

Offer followers something unique and valuablebeyond what they’re experiencing

Basic Assumptions of Path-Goal Theory

4

Adapted From Figure 14.9

path goal theory1

Subordinate Contingencies

  • Perceived Ability
  • Locus of Control
  • Experience
  • Leadership Styles
  • Directive
  • Supportive
  • Participative
  • Achievement-Oriented
  • Outcomes
  • Subordinate satisfaction
  • Subordinate performance
  • Environmental Contingencies
  • Task Structure
  • Formal Authority System
  • Primary Work Group
Path-Goal Theory

4

Adapted From Figure 14.10

adapting leader behavior path goal theory

Leadership

Styles

Subordinate

andEnvironmental

Contingencies

Outcomes

Adapting Leader Behavior:Path-Goal Theory

4

leadership styles
Leadership Styles
  • Directive
    • clarifying expectations and guidelines
  • Supportive
    • being friendly and approachable
  • Participative
    • allowing input on decisions
  • Achievement-Oriented
    • setting challenging goals

4.1

subordinate and environmental contingencies

Subordinate

Environmental

  • Perceived ability
  • Locus of control
  • Experience
Subordinate and Environmental Contingencies
  • Task structure
  • Formal authority system
  • Primary work group

4.2

adapting leadership behavior
Adapting Leadership Behavior

Hersey and Blanchard’s Situational Leadership Theory

WorkerReadiness

Leadership

Styles

5

worker readiness
Worker Readiness
  • The ability and willingness to take responsibility for directing one’s behavior at work
  • Components of worker readiness:
    • Job readiness
    • Psychological readiness

5.1

worker readiness1

R4

confident

willing

able

R3

insecure

not willing

able

R2

confidentwilling not able

R1

insecure not able not willing

Worker Readiness

5.1

leadership styles1

high task behavior

low relationship behavior

Telling(R1)

Selling(R2)

high task behavior

high relationship behavior

Participating(R3)

low task behaviorhigh relationship behavior

Delegating(R4)

low task behaviorlow relationship behavior

Leadership Styles

5.2

normative decision theory
Normative Decision Theory

DecisionStyles

Decision Quality and Acceptance

6

decision styles

Leader accepts any decisionsupported by the entire group

AI

AII

CI

CII

GII

Share problem

with group,

get ideas.

Make decision,

which may or

may not reflect

input.

Share problem,

get ideas from

individuals.

Select a

solution

yourself.

Leader solves the problemor makes the decision

Solve the

problem

yourself

Obtain

information.

Select a

solution

yourself.

Share problem

with group.

Together tries

to reach a

solution.

Leader acts as

facilitator.

Decision Styles

6.1

Adapted from Exhibit 14.12

decision quality and acceptance
Decision Quality and Acceptance
  • Using the right amount of employee participation:
    • improves decision quality
    • improves acceptance
  • Decision tree helps leader identify

optimal level of participation

6.2

normative theory decision rules to increase decision quality
Normative Theory Decision Rulesto Increase Decision Quality
  • Quality Rule
    • If the quality of the decision is important, then don't use an autocratic decision style
  • Leader Information Rule
    • If the quality of the decision is important, and if the leader doesn't have enough information to make the decision on his or her own, then don't use an autocratic decision style
  • Subordinate Information Rule
    • If the quality of the decision is important, and if the subordinates don't have enough information to make the decision themselves, then don't use a group decision style

6.2

normative theory decision rules to increase decision quality1
Normative Theory Decision Rulesto Increase Decision Quality
  • Goal Congruence Rule
    • If the quality of the decision is important, and subordinates' goals are different from the organization's goals, then don't use a group decision style
  • Problem Structure Rule
    • If the quality of the decision is important, the leader doesn't have enough information to make the decision on his or her own, and the problem is unstructured, then don't use an autocratic decision style

6.2

normative theory decision rules to increase decision acceptance
Normative Theory Decision Rulesto Increase Decision Acceptance
  • Commitment Probability Rule
    • If having subordinates accept and commit to the decision is important, then don't use an autocratic decision style
  • Subordinate Conflict Rule
    • If having subordinates accept the decision is important and critical to successful implementation and subordinates are likely to disagree or end up in conflict over the decision, then don't use an autocratic or consultative decision style
  • Commitment Requirement Rule
    • If having subordinates accept the decision is absolutely required for successful implementation and subordinates share the organization's goals, then don't use an autocratic or consultative style

6.2

visionary leadership
Visionary Leadership

CharismaticLeadership

TransformationalLeadership

7

charismatic leadership
Charismatic Leadership
  • Creates an exceptionally strong relationship between leader and follower
  • Charismatic leaders:
    • articulate a clear vision, based on values
    • model values consistently with vision
    • communicate high performance expectations
    • display confidence in followers’ abilities

7.1

kinds of charismatic leaders
Kinds of Charismatic Leaders
  • Ethical Charismatics
    • provide developmental opportunities
    • open to positive and negative feedback
    • recognize others’ contributions
    • share information
    • concerned with the interests of the group
  • Unethical Charismatics
    • control and manipulate followers
    • do what is best for themselves
    • only want positive feedback
    • motivated by self-interest

7.1

ethical and unethical charismatic leaders

Charismatic Leader Behaviors

Ethical Charismatics

Power is used to serve others

Exercising Power

Followers help develop the vision

Creating the vision

Communicating with followers

Two-way communication

Accepting feedback

Open to feedback

Stimulating followers

Want followers to think and to questions the status quo

Developing followers

Focus on developing followers

Living by moral standards

Three virtues: courage, sense of fairness, integrity

Ethical and Unethical Charismatic Leaders

7.1

Adapted from Exhibit 14.15

ethical and unethical charismatic leaders1

Charismatic Leader Behaviors

Unethical Charismatics

Ethical and Unethical Charismatic Leaders

Power is used to dominate others

Exercising Power

Vision comes solely from the leader

Creating the vision

Communicating with followers

One-way communication, not open to input from others

Accepting feedback

Prefer yes-men, punish candid feedback

Stimulating followers

Don’t want followers to think, prefer uncritical acceptance of own ideas

Developing followers

Insensitive to followers’ needs

Living by moral standards

Follow standards only if they satisfy immediate self interests

7.1

Adapted from Exhibit 14.15

reducing risks of unethical charismatics
Reducing Risks of Unethical Charismatics
  • Have a clearly written code of conduct
  • Recruit, select, and promote managers with high ethical standards
  • Train leaders how to value, seek, and used diverse points of view
  • Celebrate and reward those who exhibit ethical behaviors

7.1

transformational leadership
Transformational Leadership
  • Generates awareness and acceptance of group’s purpose and mission
  • Gets followers to accomplish more than they intended or thought possible

7.2

components of transformational leadership
Components of Transformational Leadership
  • Charisma or idealized influence
  • Inspirational motivation
  • Intellectual stimulation
  • Individualized consideration

7.2