Karl Marx. 1818-1883. German-Jewish family converted to Christianity. Studies Law and Philosophy in Bonn and Berlin Influenced by Hegel’s dialectics, Smith’s and Ricardo’s theories, and utopian socialism. Dialectical Materialism. 1844 – Meets Friedrich Engels (life-long partnership).
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Thesis – Negation- Negation’s Negation (Synthesis)In Hegel: movement of disclosing of the IDEAIn Marx: movement of development of SOCIAL RELATIONS.
“Philosophers have only interpreted the world in various ways; the point is to change it.”
“Political economy begins with the fact of private property; it does not explain it. It conceives the material process of private property, as this occurs in reality, in general and abstract formulas which then serve it as laws. It does not comprehend these laws…”
“…in other words, what should be explained is assumed.” (656)
“The only motive forces which political economy recognizes are avarice and the war between the avaricious, competition.” (656)
“Let us not begin our explanation, as does the economist, from a legendary primordial condition. Such a primordial condition does not explain anything; it merely removes the question into a grey and nebulous distance.” (656)
“The single, isolated hunter and fisherman, with whom Smith and Ricardo begin, belongs to the unimaginative fancies of eighteenth-century Robinsonades... (...)... Purely aesthetic illusion of small and great Robinsonades.” (Grundrisse, 1857)
“The further back in history we go, the more does the individual, and thus also the productive individual, appear as dependent, as part of a greater whole...” (Grundrisse, 1857)
“Man, in the most literal sense, is a zoon politikon, not just a social animal but an animal which can achieve individuation only in society.” (Grundrisse, 1857)
Relations of Production+
=Mode of Production
Being determines Consciousness just a social animal but an animal which can achieve individuation only in society.” (Grundrisse, 1857)
In History, just a social animal but an animal which can achieve individuation only in society.” (Grundrisse, 1857)
Classes appear with the division of labor, and class struggle starts once social labor generates a permanent excedent which can be appropriated.
The State just a social animal but an animal which can achieve individuation only in society.” (Grundrisse, 1857)appeared historically as a weapon in the class struggle, and it is always controlled by the ruling class...And it will vanish together with class exploitation.
The bourgeoisie appeared in the feudal society and ended by overthrowing the nobility through Revolution; Capitalism in turn generates the working class, which now must overthrow the bourgeois society and build up socialism...PROGRESS