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Intro to Phrases: Prepositional, Appositive, Participial, Gerund, & Absolute. English I. Phrases. Groups of words that do not contain both a subject and a verb. Phrases do not express a complete thought. Prepositional Phrase. What does it do? Answer the question: What kind? Which one?
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Intro to Phrases:Prepositional, Appositive, Participial, Gerund, & Absolute English I
Phrases • Groups of words that do not contain both a subject and a verb. • Phrases do not express a complete thought.
Prepositional Phrase • What does it do? • Answer the question: • What kind? • Which one? • Where? • Why? • When? • In what way? • What is it? • A group of words that begins with a preposition • Prepositions tell: direction, time, space, or place • May describe any other part of the sentence
Prepositional Phrase Examples: • The store is around the corner. – (Where?) • The girl with the blue hair is funny. (Which one?) • We text our friends between classes. (When?) Common Prepositions: about, above, across, after, around, before, behind, between, during, for, from, in, inside, into, near, of, off, on, outside, over, past, since, toward, under, up, upon, with, within, without
Appositive Phrases • What is it? • A word or group of words that identify, rename, or explain more about a noun or pronoun • What does it do? • Always follow a noun or pronoun • Always include a noun • Usually include descriptive words (adjectives)
Appositive Phrase Examples: • Football, my favorite sport, is exciting. • Rambo, the three legged dog, is very mean. • My favorite class, English, is so fun! (What do you notice about the punctuation in all 3 examples?) Appositive phrases are always set off by commas.
Participial Phrases • What is it? • A group of words that begins with apast or present tense verb. • Past tense verbs end in: • “ed” “en” “d” “t” • Present tense verbs end in: • “ing” • What does it do? • Even though they look like verbs, participial phrases act as ADJECTIVESby describing nouns or pronouns.
Participial Phrase Examples: • The crying baby wanted to be held. • Ruinedby the rain, the parade ended early. • Jack, swimmingfor his life, won the gold medal.
Gerund Phrases: • What is it? • A verb ending in “ing” • What does it do? • Even though it looks like a verb, a gerund acts a NOUN in a sentence – often the subject.
Gerund Phrase Examples: • Speeding is dangerous. • Sleeping late on Saturdays is such a treat. • Standing in line was no fun. Speeding, Sleeping, and Standing are all gerunds = “ing” verbs acting as a noun.
Absolute Phrases: • What is it? • A group of words containing a NOUN or a PRONOUN + a PARTICIPIAL (a “ing” or “ed” verb) • What does it do? • Absolute phrases: • describe the whole sentence • are always set off by commas • usually begin with: my, his, her, its, our, their
Absolute Phrase Examples: • Her hands shaking, she began her speech. • His mouth drooling, the dog begged for the bone. • The thunder crashing, we knew the storm was close.
Review:Identify the phrases used in these sentences: • Riding a roller coaster is a big thrill. • My tires spinning from the wet road, I drove slowly. • My best friend lives across the streetfrom me. • The Yankees are playing the best team in baseball, The Red Sox. • Feeling sick, the student went to the nurse’s office.