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Pointers. Variable Declarations. Declarations served dual purpose Specification of range of values and operations Specification of Storage requirement All programs required FIXED amount of memory number of variables fixed by the declaration decided by their types

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variable declarations
Variable Declarations
  • Declarations served dual purpose
    • Specification of range of values and operations
    • Specification of Storage requirement
  • All programs required FIXED amount of memory
    • number of variables fixed by the declaration
    • decided by their types
  • One exception: Allocatable array
    • Size of the array depends upon input
static and dynamic allocation
Static and Dynamic Allocation
  • Compiler uses the declaration to allocate memory for a program
  • Static allocation (or fixed memory requirements) leads you to be conservative
  • Wastage of space and poor performance for some inputs
  • Analogy: Two-way traffic in City roads
  • Better management: allocate on demand
    • Initially allocate minimal
    • Allocate more when needed
    • Deallocate when not needed
    • Dynamic Memory management
dynamic memory allocation
Dynamic Memory allocation
  • Memory allocation not fixed
  • nor done at compile-time
  • It is done at run-time
  • at run-time no declarations - only executable instructions
  • need special instructions for allocation - executable declarations so to say
  • Allocate and Deallocate constructs for dynamic arrays
  • we need more general mechanism for arbitrary organization of data
  • One problem with dynamic allocation:
  • How do we access the newly allocated memory locations
  • How did we access the statically allocated memory?
  • Access the new locations by their addresses
  • This is against the principle of high level languages:
    • abstract memory locations and machine details
    • disallow direct control over resources – unsafe
  • is there any other way?
  • pointer variables is a compromise
  • Pointer variable contains addresses rather than data values
  • Addresses point to the newly allocated memory locations and hence called pointers
pointer variables
Pointer variables
  • They store addresses that identify locations where actual data values reside
  • Pointer variables declared statically so compiler can allocate memory
  • Static declaration of pointer variables! That is funny
    • we do not know a priori our memory requirement and hence our quest for dynamic memory locations
  • Static declarations can allocate only a fixed number of pointers
  • How do we create and access unbounded number of locations
  • Answer: Dynamic creation of pointers themselves (more on this later)
pointer variable declarations
Pointer variable Declarations
  • Declarations specify types - set of data values and operations
  • What types pointers are or should be?
  • Pointer variables store addresses
  • Addresses are numerical values - non negative integers
  • Are they non negative integers? No, quite a different kind
  • Pointers always contain same type of values whatever they point to
    • Can point to integers, reals, characters, arrays or structures
  • Are all pointers of the same type
pointers are of different types
Pointers are of different types
  • Only way of accessing dynamic objects is through pointers
  • What is pointed to is distinguished - real, integer, character, array etc.
  • Essential to distinguish the pointers for the same reason
  • So Pointers are of different types:
    • integer pointer, real pointer, array pointer, etc
  • Pointer types are decided by the types of those pointed to
  • Declarations specify these
pointer declarations
Pointer Declarations
  • Examples:

integer, pointer:: p1, p2

real, pointer:: r1, r2

integer, dimension(:), pointer:: array_ptr

real, dimension(:,:), pointer:: matrix_ptr

  • These declarations allocate memory for the pointer variables
  • Pointer variables have addresses like normal addresses
  • But they store addresses - the addresses will be assigned dynamically (during execution)
  • Addresses assigned should correspond to locations where data values with the specified type is stored
  • Special statements are provided for this purpose
target variables
Target variables
  • Simplest pointer assignment:
    • store the address of a location allocated for a variable
  • Example:

p1 => x

r1 => z

matrix_ptr => m


    • p1,r1, matrix_ptr as before
    • x,z,m are integer, real and matrix variables
  • The types should match
  • rhs variables resolved to addresses!
    • contrast with conventional assignment
pointer assignment
Pointer assignment







target declarations
Target declarations
  • For a variable to act as target explicit declaration required:

integer, target :: x

real, target :: z

integer, dimension(10,10), target :: matrix_ptr

targets can be pointers
Targets can be pointers
  • Suppose p1 and p2 are of pointers of the same type
  • Further suppose p2 points to a location of appropriate type
  • Then

p1 => p2

  • makes p1 point to whatever p2 points to
dereferencing of pointers
Dereferencing of pointers
  • Two meanings for pointers in

p1 => p2

  • p2 has an address and contains another address
  • What is assigned to p1 is the content of p2
  • p2 on the rhs refers to the contents of p2 rather than p2 itself
  • This is called Dereferencing
  • Contrast this when target is ordinary variable

p1 => x

    • what is assigned here is not the content of x but the address of x
another example
Another example
  • Consider

write *, p1, p2

  • What is printed?
  • The address associated with p1,p2?
  • No, the values stored at those addresses
  • The pointers are dereferenced to get the values
pointers in normal assignment
Pointers in Normal Assignment
  • Pointers can appear in normal assignments:
    • p1 = p2
    • p1 = p2 + p3
  • Suppose, p1, p2 and p3 points to targets x, y and z
  • The above is equivalent to
    • x = y
    • x = y + z
  • Note that p1 is also dereferenced here
rules for dereferencing
Rules for dereferencing


  • The lhs should be evaluated to an address (or pointer)
  • The rhs should also evaluate to an address


  • The lhs should evaluate to an address
  • The rhs should evaluate to a value

print *, x

    • x should be a value
  • So the rule is:

Dereference the pointer as much required to evaluate to appropriate value

use of pointers
Use of Pointers
  • Suppose you wish to exchange two arrays arr1, arr2 of Dimension(100,100)
  • Solution 1:

temp = arr1

arr1 = arr2

arr2 = temp

  • involves exchange of 10,000 values!
  • Solution 2:

Real, Dimension(:,:), pointer:: p1,p2,temp

p1 => arr1

p2 => arr2

temp => p1

p1 => p2

p2 => temp

  • Exchange of just twopointers
dynamic allocation of memory
Dynamic Allocation of Memory
  • So far, pointers point to already existing variables
  • The amount of used memory is still static
  • For dynamic memory requirement, additional mechanism needed
  • Allocate and Deallocate instructions
  • Allocate ‘creates’ required memory and decllocate ‘destroys’ memory
allocate command
Allocate Command
  • Simplest allocate statement

Allocate(p, stat = s)

  • This allocates appropriate memory space,
  • address pointed to by the pointer p
  • s returns an integer value which indicates whether allocation successful or not

s = 0 means success,

failure otherwise

  • Stat = is optional but should always be used
  • If allocation fails and if no stat = clause, then the program will abort
some examples
Some examples

integer, pointer:: p1

integer, dimension(:):: p2


allocate(p1, Stat=p1_stat)

allocate(p2(1:10), Stat = p2_stat)


p1 = x + y

p2(2) = p2(1) + p1

  • Note the dimension specification in p2 declaration
deallocate command
Deallocate Command
  • Memory created using Allocate command can be destroyed when not needed
    • Deallocate(p, Stat = p_stat)
  • Deallocates the memory, if p_stat = 0
  • What does p point to after this command?
  • It points to null value
  • Pointer assignment or allocation associates the pointer with some address
  • Deallocation breaks this association
  • Referring to pointer that is disassociated is an error
    • The program will abort
checking association
Checking Association
  • To avoid aborting, association status of pointer should be checkable
  • Intrinsic function Associated used for this purpose


  • returns the value .TRUE. iff p is associated with a target
  • A more general form is

associated(p, tvar)

  • returns.TRUE iff p is associated with the target tvar
  • Association with a pointer can be removed using


  • which disassociates p with any target.
pointers serious safety hazard
Pointers - serious safety hazard
  • Conventional variables have many nice features:
    • unique association of memory with variables
    • distinct variables - distinct locations
    • one without the other not possible
  • Pointers provides flexibility and more control
  • But at the cost of safety
  • It is a low-level feature
  • No unique association of pointers to targets
  • More than one pointer to the same target or location
  • Pointer without location (dangling pointers)!
  • Location without any pointers too (memory leak or garbage)!
multiple associations
Multiple Associations

p1 => x

p2 => p1

p3 => p2

p4 => x

  • All point to the same location






dangling pointers
Dangling Pointers
  • What is the problem with multiple associations?
  • value pointed to by p1 can be changed independently

p1 = 10

p2 = 17

p1 = p1 + 1

p1 points to a location which contains 18 and not 11

  • More serious problem:

p1 = 10


p1 = p1 + 2

  • p1 is pointing to a location which is deallocated
  • p1 is a dangling pointer
  • no control over what value the deallocated memory will contain
memory leak
Memory Leak
  • Only way of accessing dynamically allocated memory is via pointers
  • Suppose there is only one pointerp pointing a location
  • nullify(p) disassociatesp
  • The memory is no longer accessible
  • Memory has leaked out - memory has become garbage
  • Deallocation done before memory leaks out
  • Wastage of space
  • Separate Garbage collection phase